ESnet Launches Architecture to Help Researchers Deliver on Data-Intensive Science

By Jon Bashor

April 26, 2012

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Sciences Network, or ESnet, provides reliable high-bandwidth network services to thousands of researchers tackling some of the most pressing scientific and engineering problems, such as finding new sources of clean energy, increasing energy efficiency, understanding climate change, developing new materials for industry and discovering the nature of our universe. To support these research endeavors, ESnet connects scientists at more than 40 DOE sites with experimental and computing facilities in the U.S. and abroad, as well as with their collaborators around the world. ESnet is managed for DOE’s Office of Science by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

As science becomes increasingly data-intensive, the ESnet staff regularly meets with scientists to better understand their future networking needs, then develops and deploys the infrastructure and services to address those requirements before they become a reality. One example of this is the Advanced Networking Initiative, a prototype 100 gigabits-per-second networking connecting the DOE Office of Science’s top supercomputing centers in California, Illinois and Tennessee, and an international peering point in New York. This 100 Gbps prototype is now being transitioned to production and will be rolled out to all other connected DOE sites in the coming year.

In order to help these research institutions fully capitalize on this growing availability of bandwidth to manage their growing data sets, ESnet is now working with the scientific community to encourage the use of a network design model called the “Science DMZ.” The Science DMZ is a specially designed local networking infrastructure aimed at speeding the delivery of scientific data. In March 2012, the National Science Foundation supported the concept by issuing a solicitation for proposals from universities to develop Science DMZs as they upgrade their local network infrastructures.

Leading the development of the Science DMZ effort at ESnet is Eli Dart, a network engineer with previous experience at Sandia National Laboratories and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center. In this interview conducted by Jon Bashor of Berkeley Lab, Dart answers some basic questions about the nature of the project and its principle goals.

Jon Bashor: What is the Science DMZ and where did the Science DMZ idea come from?

Eli Dart: In its purest form, it’s an element of the overall network architecture, typically a dedicated portion of a site or campus network, located as close to the network perimeter as possible, that serves only high-performance science applications. The intent of the Science DMZ is to simplify the deployment and support of high-performance and data-intensive science applications that rely on high-speed networking for success. These applications have unique network requirements that typically cannot be met by networks that are optimized for normal business operations like web browsing, procurement and financial systems, and the like. The idea itself came from two places.

The concept of a DMZ network originated in the network security space where so-called network “demilitarized zones” or DMZs are used to provide a dedicated portion of the network near the site perimeter specifically configured to support services that interact with the outside world. These services often include authoritative DNS, incoming email, outward facing websites, etc. These services usually fall under a security policy that’s different than the one for the rest of the enterprise architecture.

You can extend that notion to build a dedicated piece of the network specifically for high performance scientific applications, again located at or near the perimeter, and with hardware you know can handle these applications. The Science DMZ is not configured to handle the standard enterprise or business functions, such as email and web servers, desktop applications, and so forth. These typically need a massive security infrastructure to protect them, and the security measures required to protect business servers and desktop applications typically cause problems for high-performance applications. The Science DMZ model explicitly separates the science traffic from general-purpose network traffic, and allows appropriate security policies and enforcement mechanisms to be applied to each.

The second source for the Science DMZ concept came from working with TCP, or the Transmission Control Protocol. While most science applications that need reliable data delivery use TCP-based tools for data movement, TCP’s interpretation of packet loss can cause performance issues. TCP interprets packet loss as network congestion, and so when loss is encountered TCP dramatically reduces its sending rate – slowing the data transfer. In practice even a tiny amount of loss (much less than 1%) can be enough to reduce TCP performance by over a factor of 100.

For years people have been trying to fix TCP (with some success), but packet loss combined with high latency is a serious performance killer. It’s easier to build an infrastructure to provide loss-free IP service and to accommodate TCP rather than change it – this is what the Science DMZ model aims to accomplish.

Bashor: What makes up the Science DMZ model?

Dart: The Science DMZ itself is a portion of the network, at or near the site perimeter, which is specifically configured to support high-performance science applications. There are several key aspects to the Science DMZ.

First, it must be built with capable equipment that can handle high-rate flows without dropping packets. Typically, that means good equipment (not cheap wiring closet switches) with enough output buffer space to handle bursty high-rate long-distance TCP flows. The switches and routers need to be able to accurately account for packets (especially the ones they drop) so that packet loss can be accounted for and its cause fixed.

Second, data transfer should be done on dedicated servers – Data Transfer Nodes, or DTNs – that are designed and configured for the purpose. Their TCP stacks need to be tuned and they need access to high-speed storage. We have seen successful DTN implementations using high-speed local RAID as well as GPFS or Lustre filesystems, the parallel filesystem model is typically found at supercomputer centers.

Third, a Science DMZ needs test and measurement infrastructure, typically perfSONAR that allows you to identify any issue that may be causing performance issues. Many problems that are real performance killers are what we call “soft failures.” A soft failure causes performance degradation so that the network is not useful for data-intensive science but does not cause an outage that identifies the failing component. The only way to find these is to independently test the infrastructure to locate the problem – if perfSONAR is already deployed, this is much easier than if the first step of the process is to find and deploy a test machine and the second step is to get the site at the other end to find a spare box and deploy it.

Finally, the Science DMZ incorporates a security policy that is tailored to the science applications rather than to general-purpose business computing. You don’t need to scan 50TB of simulation output for email viruses, and you don’t run an email client on your Data Transfer Node. So, why conflate the security policies and enforcement mechanisms for the two, especially when doing so will effectively compromise the science mission? Firewalls and other security enforcement boxes are typically unable to handle the throughput needed for data-intensive science – and they essentially never support advanced science services such as virtual circuits or software-defined networking.

Bashor: Why does it matter?

Dart: The real reason all this matters is that the current and future generations of scientific instruments are producing data at a level we’ve never seen before. Based on our projections, ESnet is expected to carry over 100 petabytes of data per month by 2015. And there is the potential for stupendous scientific advancements in that data deluge. The challenge is to figure out how to get the science done without spending the bulk of your time doing data management. Scientists are physicists, chemists, biologists, geneticists and so on, but they are seldom network experts. They are scientists.

The data volumes are becoming large enough that the systems and networks are not capable of handling them if the equipment is configured to default settings or to accommodate business applications. There’s a need for an infrastructure that supports data-intensive science. That infrastructure needs to be designed for data mobility, which means you can get the data where you need it, when you need it. In some cases, the analysis code is on a system close to the data, while other times the scientist wants to analyze the data on local resources – we need to support it all. Data-intensive science is what we’re all going to be doing for the next decade or more.

Bashor: Can you describe a typical user who would benefit from having a Science DMZ?

Dart: The main benefit of the Science DMZ is that the scientist who needs to move data doesn’t have to first troubleshoot the infrastructure in order to use it. Scientists should not have to fix the network, the data transfer servers, and so forth before they can get to work.

There really isn’t a typical user, but there are some basic commonalities. One example could be data taken from a beamline at DOE’s Advanced Light Source. A data transfer node has been set up and Globus Online installed for users who need to fetch the data. Then you have the well-known Large Hadron Collider, which has several primary Tier 1 centers feeding data to the Tier 2 centers. This requires significantly more infrastructure. In both cases, you need to make sure the network is designed correctly so that data transfer tools work correctly. These fundamental principles benefit all users.

Bashor: How does ESnet play into this equation?

Dart: ESnet is the high-performance network for DOE’s Office of Science. It’s the backbone network infrastructure for the national laboratory system, supporting science at those labs. Through our 25 years of experience serving the scientific community, we have become a central repository for the expertise to support high-performance networking. So, part of our job is to be available to support scientists at the labs and their collaborators, such as researchers at universities.

The assumption is that the high-performance network infrastructure exists to support all parts of these modern scientific collaborations. The services must be consistent from end to end – from scientist to scientist – now matter where they may located and regardless of who owns the pieces of the infrastructure. For example, if scientists at the SLAC Linear Accelerator Center are sharing data with colleagues at a Max Planck Institute in Germany, the data moves from SLAC’s local network over ESnet to GEANT, the pan-European research network, then over Germany’s DFN network and onto the local network at the institute – crossing five different domains, owned and operated by five different organizations. ESnet has built partnerships with the global ecosystem of research and education networks so that if a network problem occurs, we can work collaboratively to quickly resolve it – wherever it is.

Bashor: The NSF recently cited Science DMZ as an upgrade that universities should consider as they work to enhance their overall IT infrastructure. Your thoughts on this?

Dart: We think it’s wonderful. The infrastructure that will be built with those funds will enable discoveries that otherwise would not be possible. It’s a critical investment in the scientific infrastructure of this country.

As I said, we’re all going spend the next decade or more supporting data-intensive science, so we need to get the infrastructure right. It needs to be adaptable, flexible and expandable. We can see what’s coming in the next one to three years. In some fields, the cost of generating data has fallen to almost zero. In genome sequencing, the cost per genome has fallen off a cliff. The cost of a raw megabyte of DNA sequence is now less than 10 cents. In July 2001, it was about $4,500. What this means is that we are entering a world where scientific productivity is gated on data analysis, not data generation.

In physics, new detectors will capture data in the terabyte-per-second range, with data analysis and reduction built into the detectors, so that only the data the researchers are really interested in will be kept. This is already happening at the LHC. The ATLAS detector generates about a petabyte of data a second. It’s sent through a multi-stage trigger farm where it’s reduced to about 2.5 gigabits per second coming out. Now many other science domains are getting into this same situation.

Looking 10 years out is beyond the current planning and budget outlooks – and well outside the scope of a single procurement or a single technology. This puts the work into the architecture space, not the technology or device space. We do know that everything about the data is growing exponentially, but not the funding. So we need to design a system that works well in general and is adaptable.

If you want to do capability-class science, you need to have capability-class infrastructure. You have to have the resources appropriate to get the most return on your scientific investment.

Bashor: ESnet has a number of projects to improve end-to-end network performance through testing and measurement. Can you talk about those briefly?

Dart: Performance testing and measurement is absolutely critical. If we go back to the need to accommodate TCP because packet loss is the number one enemy of data-intensive science, we have to be able to find and fix any problems quickly. Because issues can arise anywhere on the network path which can include multiple administrative domains, you need to have the means to individually test the paths, and take out or reconfigure the problem areas.

For this reason, ESnet – with Internet2 and several other collaborators – helped develop perfSONAR, an infrastructure for network performance monitoring, making it easier to solve end-to-end performance problems on paths crossing several networks. ESnet has test and measurement capabilities at every hub site and router on our network. You have to have this infrastructure in place before a problem occurs – this allows you to find and fix the problem in hours or days, not months.

Another service for improving end-to-end performance is OSCARS, ESnet’s On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System. OSCARS provides multi-domain, high-bandwidth virtual circuits that guarantee end-to-end network data transfer performance. With a Science DMZ, OSCARS can touch down at an institution, along with other science-specific services. This allows for capability-class services to be used without interfering with the enterprise system. The bottom line is that science opportunities have a better chance of not being missed.

Subscribe to HPCwire's Weekly Update!

Be the most informed person in the room! Stay ahead of the tech trends with industy updates delivered to you every week!

SC22 Unveils ACM Gordon Bell Prize Finalists

August 12, 2022

Courtesy of the schedule for the SC22 conference, we now have our first glimpse at the finalists for this year’s coveted Gordon Bell Prize. The Gordon Bell Prize, of course, comes with an award of $10,000 courtesy of H Read more…

Q&A with ORNL’s Bronson Messer, an HPCwire Person to Watch in 2022

August 12, 2022

HPCwire presents our interview with Bronson Messer, distinguished scientist and director of Science at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), ORNL, and an HPCwire 2022 Person to Watch. Messer recaps ORNL's journey to exascale and sheds light on how all the pieces line up to support the all-important science. Also covered are the role... Read more…

TACC Simulations Probe the First Days of Stars, Black Holes

August 12, 2022

The stunning images produced by the James Webb Space Telescope and recent supercomputer-enabled black hole imaging efforts have brought the early days of the universe quite literally into sharp focus. Researchers from th Read more…

Google Program to Free Chips Boosts University Semiconductor Design

August 11, 2022

A Google-led program to design and manufacture chips for free is becoming popular among researchers and computer enthusiasts. The search giant's open silicon program is providing the tools for anyone to design chips, which then get manufactured. Google foots the entire bill, from a chip's conception to delivery of the final product in a user's hand. Google's... Read more…

Argonne Deploys Polaris Supercomputer for Science in Advance of Aurora

August 9, 2022

Argonne National Laboratory has made its newest supercomputer, Polaris, available for scientific research. The system, which ranked 14th on the most recent Top500 list, is serving as a testbed for the exascale Aurora system slated for delivery in the coming months. The HPE-built Polaris system (pictured in the header) consists of 560 nodes... Read more…

AWS Solution Channel

Shutterstock 1519171757

Running large-scale CFD fire simulations on AWS for Amazon.com

This post was contributed by Matt Broadfoot, Senior Fire Strategy Manager at Amazon Design and Construction, and Antonio Cennamo ProServe Customer Practice Manager, Colin Bridger Principal HPC GTM Specialist, Grigorios Pikoulas ProServe Strategic Program Leader, Neil Ashton Principal, Computational Engineering Product Strategy, Roberto Medar, ProServe HPC Consultant, Taiwo Abioye ProServe Security Consultant, Talib Mahouari ProServe Engagement Manager at AWS. Read more…

Microsoft/NVIDIA Solution Channel

Shutterstock 1689646429

Gain a Competitive Edge using Cloud-Based, GPU-Accelerated AI KYC Recommender Systems

Financial services organizations face increased competition for customers from technologies such as FinTechs, mobile banking applications, and online payment systems. To meet this challenge, it is important for organizations to have a deep understanding of their customers. Read more…

US CHIPS and Science Act Signed Into Law

August 9, 2022

Just a few days after it was passed in the Senate, the U.S. CHIPS and Science Act has been signed into law by President Biden. In a ceremony today, Biden signed and lauded the ambitious piece of legislation, which over the course of the legislative process broadened to include hundreds of billions in additional science and technology spending. He was flanked by Speaker... Read more…

Q&A with ORNL’s Bronson Messer, an HPCwire Person to Watch in 2022

August 12, 2022

HPCwire presents our interview with Bronson Messer, distinguished scientist and director of Science at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), ORNL, and an HPCwire 2022 Person to Watch. Messer recaps ORNL's journey to exascale and sheds light on how all the pieces line up to support the all-important science. Also covered are the role... Read more…

Google Program to Free Chips Boosts University Semiconductor Design

August 11, 2022

A Google-led program to design and manufacture chips for free is becoming popular among researchers and computer enthusiasts. The search giant's open silicon program is providing the tools for anyone to design chips, which then get manufactured. Google foots the entire bill, from a chip's conception to delivery of the final product in a user's hand. Google's... Read more…

Argonne Deploys Polaris Supercomputer for Science in Advance of Aurora

August 9, 2022

Argonne National Laboratory has made its newest supercomputer, Polaris, available for scientific research. The system, which ranked 14th on the most recent Top500 list, is serving as a testbed for the exascale Aurora system slated for delivery in the coming months. The HPE-built Polaris system (pictured in the header) consists of 560 nodes... Read more…

US CHIPS and Science Act Signed Into Law

August 9, 2022

Just a few days after it was passed in the Senate, the U.S. CHIPS and Science Act has been signed into law by President Biden. In a ceremony today, Biden signed and lauded the ambitious piece of legislation, which over the course of the legislative process broadened to include hundreds of billions in additional science and technology spending. He was flanked by Speaker... Read more…

12 Midwestern Universities Team to Boost Semiconductor Supply Chain

August 8, 2022

The combined stressors of Covid-19 and the invasion of Ukraine have sent every major nation scrambling to reinforce its mission-critical supply chains – including and in particular the semiconductor supply chain. In the U.S. – which, like much of the world, relies on Asia for its semiconductors – those efforts have taken shape through the recently... Read more…

Quantum Pioneer D-Wave Rings NYSE Bell, Begins Life as Public Company

August 8, 2022

D-Wave Systems, one of the early quantum computing pioneers, has completed its SPAC deal to go public. Its merger with DPCM Capital was completed last Friday, and today, D-Wave management rang the bell on the New York Stock Exchange. It is now trading under two ticker symbols – QBTS and QBTS WS (warrant shares), respectively. Welcome to the public... Read more…

Supercomputer Models Explosives Critical for Nuclear Weapons

August 6, 2022

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is one of the laboratories that operates under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), which manages the United States’ stockpile of nuclear weapons. Amid major efforts to modernize that stockpile, LLNL has announced that researchers from its own Energetic Materials Center... Read more…

SEA Changes: How EuroHPC Is Preparing for Exascale

August 5, 2022

Back in June, the EuroHPC Joint Undertaking – which serves as the EU’s concerted supercomputing play – announced its first exascale system: JUPITER, set to be installed by the Jülich Supercomputing Centre (FZJ) in 2023. But EuroHPC has been preparing for the exascale era for a much longer time: eight months... Read more…

Nvidia R&D Chief on How AI is Improving Chip Design

April 18, 2022

Getting a glimpse into Nvidia’s R&D has become a regular feature of the spring GTC conference with Bill Dally, chief scientist and senior vice president of research, providing an overview of Nvidia’s R&D organization and a few details on current priorities. This year, Dally focused mostly on AI tools that Nvidia is both developing and using in-house to improve... Read more…

Royalty-free stock illustration ID: 1919750255

Intel Says UCIe to Outpace PCIe in Speed Race

May 11, 2022

Intel has shared more details on a new interconnect that is the foundation of the company’s long-term plan for x86, Arm and RISC-V architectures to co-exist in a single chip package. The semiconductor company is taking a modular approach to chip design with the option for customers to cram computing blocks such as CPUs, GPUs and AI accelerators inside a single chip package. Read more…

The Final Frontier: US Has Its First Exascale Supercomputer

May 30, 2022

In April 2018, the U.S. Department of Energy announced plans to procure a trio of exascale supercomputers at a total cost of up to $1.8 billion dollars. Over the ensuing four years, many announcements were made, many deadlines were missed, and a pandemic threw the world into disarray. Now, at long last, HPE and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have announced that the first of those... Read more…

US Senate Passes CHIPS Act Temperature Check, but Challenges Linger

July 19, 2022

The U.S. Senate on Tuesday passed a major hurdle that will open up close to $52 billion in grants for the semiconductor industry to boost manufacturing, supply chain and research and development. U.S. senators voted 64-34 in favor of advancing the CHIPS Act, which sets the stage for the final consideration... Read more…

Top500: Exascale Is Officially Here with Debut of Frontier

May 30, 2022

The 59th installment of the Top500 list, issued today from ISC 2022 in Hamburg, Germany, officially marks a new era in supercomputing with the debut of the first-ever exascale system on the list. Frontier, deployed at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory, achieved 1.102 exaflops in its fastest High Performance Linpack run, which was completed... Read more…

Newly-Observed Higgs Mode Holds Promise in Quantum Computing

June 8, 2022

The first-ever appearance of a previously undetectable quantum excitation known as the axial Higgs mode – exciting in its own right – also holds promise for developing and manipulating higher temperature quantum materials... Read more…

AMD’s MI300 APUs to Power Exascale El Capitan Supercomputer

June 21, 2022

Additional details of the architecture of the exascale El Capitan supercomputer were disclosed today by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) Terri Read more…

PsiQuantum’s Path to 1 Million Qubits

April 21, 2022

PsiQuantum, founded in 2016 by four researchers with roots at Bristol University, Stanford University, and York University, is one of a few quantum computing startups that’s kept a moderately low PR profile. (That’s if you disregard the roughly $700 million in funding it has attracted.) The main reason is PsiQuantum has eschewed the clamorous public chase for... Read more…

Leading Solution Providers

Contributors

ISC 2022 Booth Video Tours

AMD
AWS
DDN
Dell
Intel
Lenovo
Microsoft
PENGUIN SOLUTIONS

Exclusive Inside Look at First US Exascale Supercomputer

July 1, 2022

HPCwire takes you inside the Frontier datacenter at DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tenn., for an interview with Frontier Project Direc Read more…

AMD Opens Up Chip Design to the Outside for Custom Future

June 15, 2022

AMD is getting personal with chips as it sets sail to make products more to the liking of its customers. The chipmaker detailed a modular chip future in which customers can mix and match non-AMD processors in a custom chip package. "We are focused on making it easier to implement chips with more flexibility," said Mark Papermaster, chief technology officer at AMD during the analyst day meeting late last week. Read more…

Intel Reiterates Plans to Merge CPU, GPU High-performance Chip Roadmaps

May 31, 2022

Intel reiterated it is well on its way to merging its roadmap of high-performance CPUs and GPUs as it shifts over to newer manufacturing processes and packaging technologies in the coming years. The company is merging the CPU and GPU lineups into a chip (codenamed Falcon Shores) which Intel has dubbed an XPU. Falcon Shores... Read more…

Nvidia, Intel to Power Atos-Built MareNostrum 5 Supercomputer

June 16, 2022

The long-troubled, hotly anticipated MareNostrum 5 supercomputer finally has a vendor: Atos, which will be supplying a system that includes both Nvidia and Inte Read more…

India Launches Petascale ‘PARAM Ganga’ Supercomputer

March 8, 2022

Just a couple of weeks ago, the Indian government promised that it had five HPC systems in the final stages of installation and would launch nine new supercomputers this year. Now, it appears to be making good on that promise: the country’s National Supercomputing Mission (NSM) has announced the deployment of “PARAM Ganga” petascale supercomputer at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT)... Read more…

Is Time Running Out for Compromise on America COMPETES/USICA Act?

June 22, 2022

You may recall that efforts proposed in 2020 to remake the National Science Foundation (Endless Frontier Act) have since expanded and morphed into two gigantic bills, the America COMPETES Act in the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Innovation and Competition Act in the U.S. Senate. So far, efforts to reconcile the two pieces of legislation have snagged and recent reports... Read more…

AMD Lines Up Alternate Chips as It Eyes a ‘Post-exaflops’ Future

June 10, 2022

Close to a decade ago, AMD was in turmoil. The company was playing second fiddle to Intel in PCs and datacenters, and its road to profitability hinged mostly on Read more…

Exascale Watch: Aurora Installation Underway, Now Open for Reservations

May 10, 2022

Installation has begun on the Aurora supercomputer, Rick Stevens (associate director of Argonne National Laboratory) revealed today during the Intel Vision event keynote taking place in Dallas, Texas, and online. Joining Intel exec Raja Koduri on stage, Stevens confirmed that the Aurora build is underway – a major development for a system that is projected to deliver more... Read more…

  • arrow
  • Click Here for More Headlines
  • arrow
HPCwire