The TOP500 Celebrates 20th Anniversary, Will it Survive 20 More?

By Tom Tabor

June 12, 2012

The TOP500 has provided a ranking of systems for two decades in a consistent fashion, which has provided the high-performance community with a way to compare systems and to establish targets for vendors to deliver increased capabilities to the most challenging applications.

Over the past 20 years, the TOP500 has proven to be a useful and popular benchmark. To a degree, it is a corner point in performance focused on dense linear algebra (compute-intensive floating point), which is highly correlated to many applications in computational science and engineering.

In recent years, new data-intensive problems have come to light that stress the memory subsystem for irregular accesses to data. Complimentary benchmarks are emerging, such as the Graph 500, which evaluates the suitability of a machine’s performance while running data-intensive analytics applications, and the Green500, which provides a ranking of the most energy-efficient supercomputers in the world.

With the upcoming release of the most current rankings, the TOP500 is usually a hot topic of discussion this time of year. I caught up with Professor Hans Meuer recently, considered by many to be the driving force behind the project, to learn more about his thoughts on the TOP500; its past, present, and future.

Tom Tabor: Hans, how timely is this topic at ISC’12 this year?

Hans Meuer: The 39th list will be published on Monday, June 18, during the opening session. That leaves just one more list to compile this year – the November list, which will be released at SC12 – to complete 20 years since the founding TOP500. As we countdown to the 20th anniversary celebration, Erich (Strohmaier), Jack (Dongarra), Horst (Simon), and I will be guests on HPCwire’s Soundbite live from Hamburg, and our ISC Think Tank Series topic will be “The TOP500 – Twenty Years Later.”  At SC’12, we’ll also host a TOP500 history booth to demonstrate the 20 years of development of the project. So this will be a very exciting year for us.

Tabor: Take us back to the beginning. How did you, Jack, Horst and Erich meet and did you meet with the intent of starting a ranking?

Meuer: We have all known each other for a long time. Erich joined my staff at the Mannheim University in 1990, and has thus been involved in the TOP500 project from the very beginning. I invited Jack to talk at the second Mannheim Supercomputer Seminar in 1987, and Horst has attended our HPC conferences regularly since 1990. Ironically, we didn’t hold any special meeting when we launched the project in the spring of 1993. Currently, we meet each year at ISC, and in the U.S., at the SC Conference, to discuss the project.

Tabor: How did the idea for the TOP500 germinate?

Meuer: The Mannheim Supercomputer Statistics merely contained the names of the manufacturers and thus became superfluous right at beginning of the 90s. New statistics that reflected the diversification of supercomputers, the enormous performance difference between low-end and high-end models, the increasing availability of massively parallel processing (MPP) systems, and the strong increase in computing power of the high-end models of workstation suppliers (SMP), was more essential.

To provide for this new statistical foundation, in 1993, Erich and I began to assemble and maintain a list of the 500 most powerful computer systems. We also decided right at the beginning to use the best LINPACK performance, Rmax to rank the systems in our list. The first list was compiled in June of that year. Since then, with the help of HPC sites and manufacturers, it has been compiled twice a year.

Erich and I are the TOP500 founding authors, Jack is the father of LINPACK and came aboard in 1993, and Horst embarked on the journey in 2000.

Tabor: Whose idea was it to call it the TOP500?

Meuer: It was my idea and the underlying reasons are two-fold. The first is that when we completed the Mannheim Supercomputing Statistics project, we were left with 530 systems and I considered it logical to begin where we had stopped. The other reason is sentimental. The Forbes 500 list, which point to the world’s richest and most successful people and corporations, has always fascinated me. So, here we are… focusing on the world’s 500 most powerful systems!

Tabor: Did you ever envision the list becoming so mainstream?

Meuer: No.

Tabor: What was your first instance of the notoriety of the list?

Meuer: Sometime late in the 90s, during one of the sessions at the SC conference, a speaker referred to “the list” in his presentation as a matter of course and not the TOP500 list.

Tabor: On the first list, who was number one and what was the system’s peak performance?

Meuer: This was the Thinking Machines CM-5/1024 at the Los Alamos National Lab, with a best LINPACK performance of 59.7 gigaflops and a peak performance of 131 gigaflops. By the way, the TOP500 app, which is available for free download at the Apple Store contains information on all the past lists.  

Tabor: What do you believe are the most important aspects of the TOP500 that have led it to be a widely referenced benchmark?

Meuer: We have been criticized for choosing LINPACK from the very beginning, but now in the 20th year, I believe that it was this particular choice that has contributed to the success of TOP500. Back then and also now, there simply isn’t an appropriate alternative to LINPACK. Any other benchmark would appear similarly specific, but would not be so readily available for all systems in question. One of LINPACK’s advantages is its scalability, in the sense that it has allowed us for the past 19 years to benchmark systems that cover a performance range of more than 11 orders of magnitude. Another significant advantage is that we can foster competition between manufacturers, countries and sites.

The TOP500 list’s success lies in the compilation and analysis of data over time. We have been able to correctly identify and track nearly all HPC developments over 19 years, covering manufacturers and users of HPC systems, architectures, interconnects, processors, operating systems and more. Above all else, the TOP500’s strength is that it has proved to be an exceptionally reliable tool for forecasting developments in performance.

Tabor: If there were no precedent to follow, would you propose ranking supercomputers on the basis of LINPACK measurements today?

Meuer: Yes, because LINPACK remains a useful, valid and substantive benchmark even in the years to come. And there is currently no alternative to replace it.

Tabor: What do you like and dislike with the LINPACK benchmark?

Meuer: The pros of LINPACK as a yardstick of performance are as following: one figure of merit, simple to define and rank, it allows the problem size to change with machine, and over time and it also allows for competition. The cons are that it emphasizes only “peak” CPU speed and number of CPUs. It does not stress local bandwidth, the memory system or the network, and no single figure of merit can reflect the overall performance of an HPC system. To solely rely on LINPACK today and in the years to come is definitely not enough. Additionally, we need other benchmarks to keep track of new HPC systems.

Tabor: Can you please discuss in a bit more detail the current alternative benchmarks?

Meuer: For the purpose of discussion, let’s focus on three alternative benchmarks.

The HPC Challenge Benchmark (HPC CB) from Jack Dongarra basically consists of seven different benchmarks, each stressing a different part of a system. Of course, High Performance LINPACK (HPL) is represented and stands for the CPU. Ultimately, however we don’t have a single number of merit, but seven numbers represented in a much more complex way by the so-called Kiviat Graphs.

For some people, this is too complex to understand, especially for journalists reporting on new systems entering the HPC arena. For system specialists, the results can be well interpreted and for that reason the HPC CB has reached a certain standard for selecting an HPC system for an institution.

The Green500 List, overseen by Wu-chun Feng and Kirk W. Cameron of Virginia Tech is another complimentary approach to ranking supercomputers. The inaugural Green500 list was announced at SC08 as a complement to the TOP500, to provide a ranking of the most energy-efficient supercomputers in the world, so that supercomputers can now be compared by performance-per-watt. At SC11, the latest Green500 list was published with 500 entries. The number one system in the TOP500, Fujitsu’s K computer, reached a remarkable position of number 32 on the green list, although it represents the largest power consumption, with more than 12.5 MW, as observed in the TOP500 list.

The Graph 500, led by Richard C. Murphy from Sandia National Laboratory is a highly important project that addresses the dominating data-intensive supercomputer applications. As current benchmarks don’t provide useful information on the suitability of supercomputing systems for data intensive applications, a new set of benchmarks is needed to guide the design of hardware/software systems intended to support such “big data” applications. While the TOP500 addresses number crunching, the Graph 500 addresses data crunching applications. Graph algorithms are a core part of many analytics workloads. Backed by a steering committee of 50 international experts, Graph 500 will establish a set of large-scale benchmarks for these applications.

The Graph 500 project includes three major application kernels: concurrent search, optimization (single source shortest path), and edge-oriented. (maximal independent set). It addresses five graph-related business areas: cyber security, medical informatics, data enrichment, social networks, and symbolic networks. The Graph 500 was announced at ISC’10, and the first list appeared at SC’10. (9 systems ranked). Further results have been published at ISC’11 (29 systems) and SC’11 (49 systems) with the next list slated for release at ISC’12.

Tabor: Hans, in your opinion, how much of the reason we use the TOP500 is due to the legacy and how much is because it provides good guidance on how fast a computer really is?

Meuer: I have to admit that the TOP500, with LINPACK, is not the best tool for ranking supercomputers but it’s the only one available. The TOP500, with LINPACK, doesn’t tell you how fast a computer is on useful applications. The TOP500 ranks computers only by their ability to solve a set of linear equations, Ax=b, using a dense random matrix A and nothing else. The misinterpretation of the TOP500 results has surely led to a negative attitude towards LINPACK. Politicians, for example, consider a system’s TOP500 rank as a general rank that is valid for all applications, which of course is not true.

Tabor: Do you think the TOP500 should consider replacing its ranking of systems by flops with flops-per-joule?

Meuer: No.

Tabor: What are your thoughts about expanding the TOP500 to include the price paid for the supercomputer so that one can easily see the price-performance trends?

Meuer: That is a good question. We had thought about this right at the very beginning, but decided not to include any prices. What is the price of a supercomputer? Is it the list price? Is it the negotiated price? That’s a highly vague area, and we were afraid to waste our time with a fly-by-night approach.

Tabor: Do you envision the TOP500 also ranking the performance of cloud computers?

Meuer: We haven’t thought about this yet. When we gain a deeper understanding of cloud computers, we might consider this.

Tabor: Is there any intention to compile all the lists in a book?

Meuer: Yes, we’ve been discussing this since the 15th year of TOP500. We are all more or less very busy, but now that you have reminded me, I’ll start pushing for a discussion in conjunction with our 20th anniversary.

Tabor: Finally Hans, do you believe the TOP500 will still provide a useful measure for ranking systems another 20 years from now?

Meuer: Yes, but I can’t tell you what yardstick we’ll be using 20 years from now.

Tabor: Hans, thank you for taking the time to share this important bit of HPC history with us.

Meuer: With great pleasure Tom… see you in Hamburg.

—–

About the Author

Tom Tabor is CEO and Founder of Tabor Communications, Inc. (TCI), a leading international media, advertising, and communications organization. An industry pioneer, Tom has over 30 years of experience in business-to-business publishing, with the last 24+ years focused primarily on high performance and data-intensive computing technologies.

Subscribe to HPCwire's Weekly Update!

Be the most informed person in the room! Stay ahead of the tech trends with industy updates delivered to you every week!

Google Cloud Makes Good on Promise to Add Nvidia P100 GPUs

September 21, 2017

Google has taken down the notice on its cloud platform website that says Nvidia Tesla P100s are “coming soon.” That's because the search giant has announced the beta launch of the high-end P100 Nvidia Tesla GPUs on t Read more…

By George Leopold

Cray Wins $48M Supercomputer Contract from KISTI

September 21, 2017

It was a good day for Cray which won a $48 million contract from the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (KISTI) for a 128-rack CS500 cluster supercomputer. The new system, equipped with Intel Xeon Scal Read more…

By John Russell

Adolfy Hoisie to Lead Brookhaven’s Computing for National Security Effort

September 21, 2017

Brookhaven National Laboratory announced today that Adolfy Hoisie will chair its newly formed Computing for National Security department, which is part of Brookhaven’s new Computational Science Initiative (CSI). Read more…

By John Russell

HPE Extreme Performance Solutions

HPE Prepares Customers for Success with the HPC Software Portfolio

High performance computing (HPC) software is key to harnessing the full power of HPC environments. Development and management tools enable IT departments to streamline installation and maintenance of their systems as well as create, optimize, and run their HPC applications. Read more…

PNNL’s Center for Advanced Tech Evaluation Seeks Wider HPC Community Ties

September 21, 2017

Two years ago the Department of Energy established the Center for Advanced Technology Evaluation (CENATE) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). CENATE’s ambitious mission was to be a proving ground for near- Read more…

By John Russell

Stanford University and UberCloud Achieve Breakthrough in Living Heart Simulations

September 21, 2017

Cardiac arrhythmia can be an undesirable and potentially lethal side effect of drugs. During this condition, the electrical activity of the heart turns chaotic, Read more…

By Wolfgang Gentzsch, UberCloud, and Francisco Sahli, Stanford University

PNNL’s Center for Advanced Tech Evaluation Seeks Wider HPC Community Ties

September 21, 2017

Two years ago the Department of Energy established the Center for Advanced Technology Evaluation (CENATE) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). CENAT Read more…

By John Russell

Exascale Computing Project Names Doug Kothe as Director

September 20, 2017

The Department of Energy’s Exascale Computing Project (ECP) has named Doug Kothe as its new director effective October 1. He replaces Paul Messina, who is s Read more…

Takeaways from the Milwaukee HPC User Forum

September 19, 2017

Milwaukee’s elegant Pfister Hotel hosted approximately 100 attendees for the 66th HPC User Forum (September 5-7, 2017). In the original home city of Pabst Blu Read more…

By Merle Giles

Kathy Yelick Charts the Promise and Progress of Exascale Science

September 15, 2017

On Friday, Sept. 8, Kathy Yelick of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley, delivered the keynote address on “Breakt Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

DARPA Pledges Another $300 Million for Post-Moore’s Readiness

September 14, 2017

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) launched a giant funding effort to ensure the United States can sustain the pace of electronic innovation vital to both a flourishing economy and a secure military. Under the banner of the Electronics Resurgence Initiative (ERI), some $500-$800 million will be invested in post-Moore’s Law technologies. Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

IBM Breaks Ground for Complex Quantum Chemistry

September 14, 2017

IBM has reported the use of a novel algorithm to simulate BeH2 (beryllium-hydride) on a quantum computer. This is the largest molecule so far simulated on a quantum computer. The technique, which used six qubits of a seven-qubit system, is an important step forward and may suggest an approach to simulating ever larger molecules. Read more…

By John Russell

Cubes, Culture, and a New Challenge: Trish Damkroger Talks about Life at Intel—and Why HPC Matters More Than Ever

September 13, 2017

Trish Damkroger wasn’t looking to change jobs when she attended SC15 in Austin, Texas. Capping a 15-year career within Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, she was acting Associate Director for Computation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Her mission was to equip the lab’s scientists and research partners with resources that would advance their cutting-edge work... Read more…

By Jan Rowell

How ‘Knights Mill’ Gets Its Deep Learning Flops

June 22, 2017

Intel, the subject of much speculation regarding the delayed, rewritten or potentially canceled “Aurora” contract (the Argonne Lab part of the CORAL “ Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Reinders: “AVX-512 May Be a Hidden Gem” in Intel Xeon Scalable Processors

June 29, 2017

Imagine if we could use vector processing on something other than just floating point problems.  Today, GPUs and CPUs work tirelessly to accelerate algorithms Read more…

By James Reinders

NERSC Scales Scientific Deep Learning to 15 Petaflops

August 28, 2017

A collaborative effort between Intel, NERSC and Stanford has delivered the first 15-petaflops deep learning software running on HPC platforms and is, according Read more…

By Rob Farber

Russian Researchers Claim First Quantum-Safe Blockchain

May 25, 2017

The Russian Quantum Center today announced it has overcome the threat of quantum cryptography by creating the first quantum-safe blockchain, securing cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, along with classified government communications and other sensitive digital transfers. Read more…

By Doug Black

Oracle Layoffs Reportedly Hit SPARC and Solaris Hard

September 7, 2017

Oracle’s latest layoffs have many wondering if this is the end of the line for the SPARC processor and Solaris OS development. As reported by multiple sources Read more…

By John Russell

Six Exascale PathForward Vendors Selected; DoE Providing $258M

June 15, 2017

The much-anticipated PathForward awards for hardware R&D in support of the Exascale Computing Project were announced today with six vendors selected – AMD Read more…

By John Russell

Google Debuts TPU v2 and will Add to Google Cloud

May 25, 2017

Not long after stirring attention in the deep learning/AI community by revealing the details of its Tensor Processing Unit (TPU), Google last week announced the Read more…

By John Russell

Top500 Results: Latest List Trends and What’s in Store

June 19, 2017

Greetings from Frankfurt and the 2017 International Supercomputing Conference where the latest Top500 list has just been revealed. Although there were no major Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Leading Solution Providers

IBM Clears Path to 5nm with Silicon Nanosheets

June 5, 2017

Two years since announcing the industry’s first 7nm node test chip, IBM and its research alliance partners GlobalFoundries and Samsung have developed a proces Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Nvidia Responds to Google TPU Benchmarking

April 10, 2017

Nvidia highlights strengths of its newest GPU silicon in response to Google's report on the performance and energy advantages of its custom tensor processor. Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Graphcore Readies Launch of 16nm Colossus-IPU Chip

July 20, 2017

A second $30 million funding round for U.K. AI chip developer Graphcore sets up the company to go to market with its “intelligent processing unit” (IPU) in Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Google Releases Deeplearn.js to Further Democratize Machine Learning

August 17, 2017

Spreading the use of machine learning tools is one of the goals of Google’s PAIR (People + AI Research) initiative, which was introduced in early July. Last w Read more…

By John Russell

EU Funds 20 Million Euro ARM+FPGA Exascale Project

September 7, 2017

At the Barcelona Supercomputer Centre on Wednesday (Sept. 6), 16 partners gathered to launch the EuroEXA project, which invests €20 million over three-and-a-half years into exascale-focused research and development. Led by the Horizon 2020 program, EuroEXA picks up the banner of a triad of partner projects — ExaNeSt, EcoScale and ExaNoDe — building on their work... Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Amazon Debuts New AMD-based GPU Instances for Graphics Acceleration

September 12, 2017

Last week Amazon Web Services (AWS) streaming service, AppStream 2.0, introduced a new GPU instance called Graphics Design intended to accelerate graphics. The Read more…

By John Russell

Cray Moves to Acquire the Seagate ClusterStor Line

July 28, 2017

This week Cray announced that it is picking up Seagate's ClusterStor HPC storage array business for an undisclosed sum. "In short we're effectively transitioning the bulk of the ClusterStor product line to Cray," said CEO Peter Ungaro. Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

IBM Advances Web-based Quantum Programming

September 5, 2017

IBM Research is pairing its Jupyter-based Data Science Experience notebook environment with its cloud-based quantum computer, IBM Q, in hopes of encouraging a new class of entrepreneurial user to solve intractable problems that even exceed the capabilities of the best AI systems. Read more…

By Alex Woodie

  • arrow
  • Click Here for More Headlines
  • arrow
Share This