Breaking: Detailed Results from Today’s Top 500 Fastest Supercomputers List

By Nicole Hemsoth

June 23, 2014

Greetings from Germany and the International Supercomputing Conference (ISC14) where, as happens each year, the bi-annual list of the top 500 fastest supercomputers is unveiled.

Usually, this happens with a great deal of fanfare and speculation over which machine will take the top position. However, this year, there is little surprise in the finding that the Chinese Tianhe-2 system, which blew all others out of the water when it was announced last year, held firmly onto its number one position. While you can view the specs of each of the machines in more detail at the TOP500 site, we wanted to use this time to gauge some of the overarching trends we’ve been observing in terms of performance curves over time, accelerator adoption, architecture choices and more. In short, after you browse this very familiar top ten, take a look at what’s really happening…

Top500_Top10

To review, the Tianhe-2 system, which stands at 33.86 petaflops (compared to the number two system at Oak Ridge National Lab, the Cray “Titan” machine, which offers 17.59 petaflops/s) has 16,000 nodes, each of which are outfitted with two Ivy Bridge and three Xeon Phis for a total of over 3 million cores is going to be a tough one to beat. As we noted earlier this year, China has plans to continue the build-out of this system in hopes of reaching exascale potential. The system is unique with a number of homegrown parts, including the TH Express-2 interconnect, OS, tooling and front-end processors. While it may be a powerhouse, the energy efficiency lags behind the “smaller” Titan machine. Tianhe-2 runs Linpack at 17.8 megawatts while the 261,632 core NVIDIA K20-boosted Cray system at Oak Ridge runs at 8.21 megawatts.

The IBM Sequoia system at Lawrence Livermore is holding steady at number three, which in its three years alive has topped out at 17.17 petaflops/s, not far behind Titan. For those not familiar with the list this further shows the Linpack benchmark performance chasm between the number one system and those that trail it—all of which in the top ten range between 17.59 petaflops/s at the top to 3.1 petaflops/s for #10. The 500th machine on the list runs at just a tick over the 133 teraflop/s peak mark.

For those familiar with the list in its last form in November, you’ll notice that there is only one change in the top ten—a Cray XC30 is now in place and running at 3.14 petaflops at an undisclosed U.S. government site. While other than this new, mysterious addition, there might not be any earth-shattering news on this Top 500 list, there are some trends that we’ve been monitoring over the last few list iterations—and some that have evolved since November. For instance, the United States, which once dominanted the Top 500, dropped from 265 systems during November’s listing to 233 on this 43rd Top 500.

Meanwhile, the number of Chinese systems in increasing. In addition to securing the number one spot by a significant margin, there are an additional 13 machines from China, bringing their total share of the Top 500 to 76. To put that in some perspective, the UK has 30, France has 27 and Germany has 23. Japan has contributed an additional two machines, bringing their total to 30.

When it comes to the overall list, performance is continuing to climb. The total of all machines on the November list is now 274 petaflops, compared to 250. To add further perspective, the total petaflop count across all machines reporting results was 223 petaflops. That sounds like a rather noteworthy increase until one takes a look at the long term growth line in performance…

Remember that strong performance development staircase we’ve steadily been climbing? If you take a look at the graphic below using the latest data from today’s Top 500 announcement, you’ll see that slight planing off in reach that we began to spot over the last year and a half. As our friends at TOP500 noted today, “From 1994 to 2008 [performance] grew by 90% per year. Since 2008 it only grows by 55% per year.” And when you take a close look at the list over the last couple of years, you’ll see that the reason why that declining figure isn’t more pronounced is simply because the top tier of the list is propping it up—most notably with the addition of the Tianhe-2 system, which holds 13.7% of the performance share of the entire list.

When examined as a whole, we’re falling off except at the highest end…but what does this mean for end user applications? Is high end computing getting smarter in terms of efficiency and software to where, for real-world applications, FLOPS no longer matter so much? Many argue that’s the case…and some will await the new HPCG benchmark and forgo Linpack altogether in favor of a more practical benchmark. That hasn’t had an impact yet on this summer’s list but over time it will be interesting to watch.

top500-performance

One gamechanger for the historical performance trends is certainly the mighty accelerator/coprocessor. But even the accelerator story has some interesting twists and turns to report. A total of 62 systems are using some form of accelerator or coprocessor technology, which is up slightly from 53 machines on the November list. Of those, 44 are using NVIDIA GPUs, 17 have deployed Xeon Phi and two have ATI Radeon as the booster of choice.

With that in mind, there’s another phenomenon that stands out. While this isn’t a suggestion that the performance leveling off is because of this, the trend around accelerator use isn’t quite as strong as it used to be either, as you can see on the historical development chart below. There are many reasons why this might be the case. For instance, national labs and scientific computing centers tend to be among the first to experiment with new technologies, although for GPUs in particular, this doesn’t completely match up since the real spike in NVIDIA-powered systems happens late in 2011–quite a long time after GPU computing began to take off. It’s possible to see in that spike for Intel when Xeon Phi landed in several shops as experimental technology as well, but even with a spike visible now, it’s difficult to see widespread adoption.

 

top500-acceleratorOf course, keep in mind that a tapering off of GPU or other accelerated systems doesn’t exactly mean that there is an overall slowdown. This is one segment of the HPC arena–there are many, many machines from academia and enterprise, that do not choose to run the HPL benchmark. Even if there are 20% of these machines missing from the list, the effect on that list would be felt in such a graphic. We asked Addison Snell of Intersect360 Research about the accelerator graphic above and he echoed this, noting that “Change in share in the Top 500 doesn’t necessarily reflect market trends. While Intel did gain share in microprocessors in 2013 over AMD and IBM Power, we also have seen a number of HPC systems with GPUs installed, which has risen to 44% of systems installed since the beginning of 2012.”

The real story that’s developing further with this list–and we expect, given changes at IBM in particular–is on the chip front. A great deal more will be revealed about the nature of such shifts in November and next June…and definitely by the end of 2015 if the many developments at IBM, Intel, NVIDIA and elsewhere are on schedule.

To put those in more accurate light, Intel has an 85% share of the systems on the list with IBM Power at 8 percent and AMD Opterons moving down three percent in terms of share to 6%. TOP500 reports that among these systems, 96% are sporting six or more cores with 83% harnessing eight or more.  To say that Intel continues to dominate is an understatement. But despite any perceived stagnation of this chart from the last couple of years, get ready, because the new few years are set to bring strong winds of change due to momentum with OpenPower and perhaps even AMD. The arrival of 64-bit ARM will shake things up as will new choices in chips, but expect a flat list at least through this time next year unless something completely unexpected happens. Fill in the blank on what that might be, but free, easy to program quantum computing systems seems the only option.

top500-chip

Right now, IBM’s Blue Gene/Q holds the majority of systems in the top ten. However, with changes at IBM, which is now focusing its efforts on the future of OpenPower and Power more generally, once these systems are decommissioned, along with the many others on the list (176 currently), it’s hard to say what their position will be. We talked with IBM’s Dave Turek this week in advance of ISC and we have an interview coming during our special coverage that will offer a sense of what’s next for Big Blue in HPC, so keep an eye out for that.

On the network front, there haven’t been any major changes. 222 systems are sporting Infiniband on this most recent list, up from 207 in fall. 75 entries are reporting 10 GbE, which is two less than the last list A total of 127 systems are outfitted with standard GbE (compared to 135 in November). There are 52 custom interconnects and 5 proprietary interconnects (which now includes the Cray Aries assets, which used to be counted under their own system name). The Gemini interconnect can be found on 18 systems, including, of course, Titan.

For some additional background on this summer’s list, we thought it might be useful to show two figures that demonstrate where a few trends in the list and its participants. The first will also not offer much in the way of difference or surprises compared to November’s iteration of the Top 500, although it’s thrilling to see growing industry participation take a slight rise.

top500-typeThe figure below puts all of this in context by showing the dominant trend in terms of systems–again, not a surprise, but a useful visualization.

top500-architectures

Of all of these systems, HP has a 36% share (down from 39% in November), IBM has 35% (up from 33% on the fall list) and Cray sits in third position for vendor share with 51 systems—a total of just a tick over 10% of the 500 machines.

What’s more enlightening on those figures is the performance share. As noted above, the Tianhe-2 system itself provides over 13% of the performance share for the list. But by vendor, IBM has a 32% performance share, Cray edged up to 18.6% (up by two percentage points, in part due to the new #10 government XC30), and although they sell more systems than the others, HP’s performance share is just a tick below Cray’s at 15.6%.

Stay tuned for our visual feature set go live later this morning CET that showcases other subtle trends on this summer’s TOP500 list.

And in the meantime, stop by the HPCwire booth to say hello. You’re welcome to bring a pot of coffee with you. I take it with milk, no sugar. And I will drink it all. Thank you.

 

Subscribe to HPCwire's Weekly Update!

Be the most informed person in the room! Stay ahead of the tech trends with industy updates delivered to you every week!

Red Hat’s Disruption of CentOS Unleashes Storm of Dissent

January 22, 2021

Five weeks after angering much of the CentOS Linux developer community by unveiling controversial changes to the no-cost CentOS operating system, Red Hat has unveiled alternatives for affected users that give them severa Read more…

By Todd R. Weiss

China Unveils First 7nm Chip: Big Island

January 22, 2021

Shanghai Tianshu Zhaoxin Semiconductor Co. is claiming China’s first 7-nanometer chip, described as a leading-edge, general-purpose cloud computing chip based on a proprietary GPU architecture. Dubbed “Big Island Read more…

By George Leopold

HiPEAC Keynote: In-Memory Computing Steps Closer to Practical Reality

January 21, 2021

Pursuit of in-memory computing has long been an active area with recent progress showing promise. Just how in-memory computing works, how close it is to practical application, and what are some of the key opportunities a Read more…

By John Russell

HiPEAC’s Vision for a New Cyber Era, a ‘Continuum of Computing’

January 21, 2021

Earlier this week (Jan. 19), HiPEAC — the European Network on High Performance and Embedded Architecture and Compilation — published the 8th edition of the HiPEAC Vision, detailing an increasingly interconnected computing landscape where complex tasks are carried out across multiple... Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Supercomputers Assist Hunt for Mysterious Axion Particle

January 21, 2021

In the 1970s, scientists theorized the existence of axions: particles born in the hearts of stars that, when exposed to a magnetic field, become light particles, and which may even comprise dark matter. To date, however, Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

AWS Solution Channel

Fire Dynamics Simulation CFD workflow on AWS

Modeling fires is key for many industries, from the design of new buildings, defining evacuation procedures for trains, planes and ships, and even the spread of wildfires. Read more…

Intel® HPC + AI Pavilion

Intel Keynote Address

Intel is the foundation of HPC – from the workstation to the cloud to the backbone of the Top500. At SC20, Intel’s Trish Damkroger, VP and GM of high performance computing, addresses the audience to show how Intel and its partners are building the future of HPC today, through hardware and software technologies that accelerate the broad deployment of advanced HPC systems. Read more…

Researchers Train Fluid Dynamics Neural Networks on Supercomputers

January 21, 2021

Fluid dynamics simulations are critical for applications ranging from wind turbine design to aircraft optimization. Running these simulations through direct numerical simulations, however, is computationally costly. Many Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Red Hat’s Disruption of CentOS Unleashes Storm of Dissent

January 22, 2021

Five weeks after angering much of the CentOS Linux developer community by unveiling controversial changes to the no-cost CentOS operating system, Red Hat has un Read more…

By Todd R. Weiss

HiPEAC Keynote: In-Memory Computing Steps Closer to Practical Reality

January 21, 2021

Pursuit of in-memory computing has long been an active area with recent progress showing promise. Just how in-memory computing works, how close it is to practic Read more…

By John Russell

HiPEAC’s Vision for a New Cyber Era, a ‘Continuum of Computing’

January 21, 2021

Earlier this week (Jan. 19), HiPEAC — the European Network on High Performance and Embedded Architecture and Compilation — published the 8th edition of the HiPEAC Vision, detailing an increasingly interconnected computing landscape where complex tasks are carried out across multiple... Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Saudi Aramco Unveils Dammam 7, Its New Top Ten Supercomputer

January 21, 2021

By revenue, oil and gas giant Saudi Aramco is one of the largest companies in the world, and it has historically employed commensurate amounts of supercomputing Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

President-elect Biden Taps Eric Lander and Deep Team on Science Policy

January 19, 2021

Last Friday U.S. President-elect Joe Biden named The Broad Institute founding director and president Eric Lander as his science advisor and as director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy. Lander, 63, is a mathematician by training and distinguished life sciences... Read more…

By John Russell

Pat Gelsinger Returns to Intel as CEO

January 14, 2021

The Intel board of directors has appointed a new CEO. Intel alum Pat Gelsinger is leaving his post as CEO of VMware to rejoin the company that he parted ways with 11 years ago. Gelsinger will succeed Bob Swan, who will remain CEO until Feb. 15. Gelsinger previously spent 30 years... Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Julia Update: Adoption Keeps Climbing; Is It a Python Challenger?

January 13, 2021

The rapid adoption of Julia, the open source, high level programing language with roots at MIT, shows no sign of slowing according to data from Julialang.org. I Read more…

By John Russell

Intel ‘Ice Lake’ Server Chips in Production, Set for Volume Ramp This Quarter

January 12, 2021

Intel Corp. used this week’s virtual CES 2021 event to reassert its dominance of the datacenter with the formal roll out of its next-generation server chip, the 10nm Xeon Scalable processor that targets AI and HPC workloads. The third-generation “Ice Lake” family... Read more…

By George Leopold

Esperanto Unveils ML Chip with Nearly 1,100 RISC-V Cores

December 8, 2020

At the RISC-V Summit today, Art Swift, CEO of Esperanto Technologies, announced a new, RISC-V based chip aimed at machine learning and containing nearly 1,100 low-power cores based on the open-source RISC-V architecture. Esperanto Technologies, headquartered in... Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Julia Update: Adoption Keeps Climbing; Is It a Python Challenger?

January 13, 2021

The rapid adoption of Julia, the open source, high level programing language with roots at MIT, shows no sign of slowing according to data from Julialang.org. I Read more…

By John Russell

Azure Scaled to Record 86,400 Cores for Molecular Dynamics

November 20, 2020

A new record for HPC scaling on the public cloud has been achieved on Microsoft Azure. Led by Dr. Jer-Ming Chia, the cloud provider partnered with the Beckman I Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

NICS Unleashes ‘Kraken’ Supercomputer

April 4, 2008

A Cray XT4 supercomputer, dubbed Kraken, is scheduled to come online in mid-summer at the National Institute for Computational Sciences (NICS). The soon-to-be petascale system, and the resulting NICS organization, are the result of an NSF Track II award of $65 million to the University of Tennessee and its partners to provide next-generation supercomputing for the nation's science community. Read more…

Is the Nvidia A100 GPU Performance Worth a Hardware Upgrade?

October 16, 2020

Over the last decade, accelerators have seen an increasing rate of adoption in high-performance computing (HPC) platforms, and in the June 2020 Top500 list, eig Read more…

By Hartwig Anzt, Ahmad Abdelfattah and Jack Dongarra

Aurora’s Troubles Move Frontier into Pole Exascale Position

October 1, 2020

Intel’s 7nm node delay has raised questions about the status of the Aurora supercomputer that was scheduled to be stood up at Argonne National Laboratory next year. Aurora was in the running to be the United States’ first exascale supercomputer although it was on a contemporaneous timeline with... Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

10nm, 7nm, 5nm…. Should the Chip Nanometer Metric Be Replaced?

June 1, 2020

The biggest cool factor in server chips is the nanometer. AMD beating Intel to a CPU built on a 7nm process node* – with 5nm and 3nm on the way – has been i Read more…

By Doug Black

Programming the Soon-to-Be World’s Fastest Supercomputer, Frontier

January 5, 2021

What’s it like designing an app for the world’s fastest supercomputer, set to come online in the United States in 2021? The University of Delaware’s Sunita Chandrasekaran is leading an elite international team in just that task. Chandrasekaran, assistant professor of computer and information sciences, recently was named... Read more…

By Tracey Bryant

Leading Solution Providers

Contributors

Top500: Fugaku Keeps Crown, Nvidia’s Selene Climbs to #5

November 16, 2020

With the publication of the 56th Top500 list today from SC20's virtual proceedings, Japan's Fugaku supercomputer – now fully deployed – notches another win, Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Texas A&M Announces Flagship ‘Grace’ Supercomputer

November 9, 2020

Texas A&M University has announced its next flagship system: Grace. The new supercomputer, named for legendary programming pioneer Grace Hopper, is replacing the Ada system (itself named for mathematician Ada Lovelace) as the primary workhorse for Texas A&M’s High Performance Research Computing (HPRC). Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

At Oak Ridge, ‘End of Life’ Sometimes Isn’t

October 31, 2020

Sometimes, the old dog actually does go live on a farm. HPC systems are often cursed with short lifespans, as they are continually supplanted by the latest and Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Gordon Bell Special Prize Goes to Massive SARS-CoV-2 Simulations

November 19, 2020

2020 has proven a harrowing year – but it has produced remarkable heroes. To that end, this year, the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) introduced the Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Nvidia and EuroHPC Team for Four Supercomputers, Including Massive ‘Leonardo’ System

October 15, 2020

The EuroHPC Joint Undertaking (JU) serves as Europe’s concerted supercomputing play, currently comprising 32 member states and billions of euros in funding. I Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Intel Xe-HP GPU Deployed for Aurora Exascale Development

November 17, 2020

At SC20, Intel announced that it is making its Xe-HP high performance discrete GPUs available to early access developers. Notably, the new chips have been deplo Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Nvidia-Arm Deal a Boon for RISC-V?

October 26, 2020

The $40 billion blockbuster acquisition deal that will bring chipmaker Arm into the Nvidia corporate family could provide a boost for the competing RISC-V architecture. As regulators in the U.S., China and the European Union begin scrutinizing the impact of the blockbuster deal on semiconductor industry competition and innovation, the deal has at the very least... Read more…

By George Leopold

HPE, AMD and EuroHPC Partner for Pre-Exascale LUMI Supercomputer

October 21, 2020

Not even a week after Nvidia announced that it would be providing hardware for the first four of the eight planned EuroHPC systems, HPE and AMD are announcing a Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

  • arrow
  • Click Here for More Headlines
  • arrow
Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!
Share This