Trends in HPC and Machine Learning Drive Evolution of Cooling Solutions

November 6, 2017

As seen at ISC17 and will be seen at SC17, the application of HPC in finance, logistics, manufacturing, big science and oil & gas is continuing to expand into areas of traditional enterprise computing often tied to the exploitation of Big Data. It is clear that all of these segments are using (or planning to use) machine learning and AI resulting in architectures that is very HPC-like.

The physical implementation of these systems requires a greater focus on heat capture and rejection due to the wattage trends in CPUs, GPUs and emerging neural chips required to meet accelerating computational demands in HPC-style clusters. The resulting heat and its impact on node, rack and cluster heat density is seen with Intel’s Knight’s Landing and Knight’s Mill, Nividia’s P100 and the Platinum versions of the latest Intel Skylake processors.

Wattages are now sufficiently high that to cool nodes containing these highest performance chips leaves one with little choice other than liquid cooling to maintain reasonable rack densities. In sustained compute sessions, there must be no throttling or down-clocking of the compute resources. If not addressed at the node level with liquid cooling, floor space build-outs or data center expansions become necessary. Even more importantly, reducing node and rack densities can drive an increase in interconnect distances between all types of cluster nodes.

 

Asetek RackCDU D2C™ Cooling

These developments are a direct result of a wattage inflection and not simply an extension of trends seen previously. Depending on the approach taken, machine learning and AI exacerbate this trend. Heat and wattage issues seen with GPUs during the training or learning phase of an AI application (especially if used in a deep learning/ neural network approach) are now well known.  And in some cases, these issues continue into application rollout if GPUs are applied to that as well.

Even if the architecture uses quasi-GPUs like Knight’s Mill in the training phase (via “basic” machine learning or deep learning followed by a handoff to scale-out CPUs like Skylake for actual usage) the issues of wattage/density/cooling remains. And it isn’t getting any better.

With distributed cooling’s ability to address site needs in a variety of heat rejection scenarios, it can be argued that the compute-wattage-inflection-point is a major driver in the accelerating global adoption of Asetek liquid cooling at HPC sites and by the OEMs that serve them.  And as will be shown at SC17, quite of few of the nodes OEMs are showing with liquid cooling are targeted at machine learning.

Given the variety of clusters (especially with the entrance of AI), the adaptability of the cooling approach becomes quite important. Asetek distributed pumping architecture is based on low pressure, redundant pumps and closed loop liquid cooling within each server node. This allows for a high level of flexibility in heat capture and heat rejection.

Asetek ServerLSL™ is a server-level liquid assisted air cooling (LAAC) solution. It can be used as a transitional stage in the introduction of liquid cooling or as a tool to enable the immediate incorporation of the highest performance computing nodes into the data center. ServerLSL allows the site to leverage existing HVAC, CRAC and CRAH units with no changes to data center cooling. ServerLSL replaces less efficient air coolers in the servers with redundant coolers (cold plate/pumps) and exhausts 100% of this hot air into the data center via heat exchangers (HEXs) in each server. This enables high wattage server nodes to have 1U form factors and maintain high cluster rack densities. At a site level, the heat is handled by existing CRACs and chillers with no changes to the infrastructure. With ServerLSL, liquid cooled nodes can be mixed in racks with traditional air-cooled nodes.

Asetek ServerLSL™ Cooling

While ServerLSL isolates the system within each server, Asetek RackCDU systems are rack-level focused, enabling a much greater impact on cooling costs of the datacenter overall. RackCDU systems leverage the same pumps and coolers used with ServerLSL nodes. RackCDU is in use by all of the current sites in the TOP500 using Asetek liquid cooling.

Asetek RackCDU provides the answer both at the node level and for the facility overall. As with ServerLSL, RackCDU D2C (Direct-to-Chip) utilizes redundant pumps/cold plates atop server CPUs & GPUs (and optionally other high wattage components like memory).  But the collected heat is move it via a sealed liquid path to heat exchangers in the RackCDU for transfer into facilities water. RackCDU D2C captures between 60% and 80% of server heat into liquid, reducing data center cooling costs by over 50% and allowing 2.5x-5x increases in data center server density.

The remaining heat in the data center air is removed by existing HVAC systems in this hybrid liquid/air approach. When there is unused cooling capacity available, data centers may choose to cool facilities water coming from the RackCDU with existing CRAC and cooling towers.

The high level of flexibility in addressing cooling at the server, rack, cluster and site levels provided by Asetek distributed pumping is lacking in approaches that utilize centralized pumping. Asetek’s approach continues to deliver flexibility in the areas of heat capture, coolant distribution and heat rejection.

At SC17, Asetek will also have on display a new cooling technology in which servers share a rack mounted HEX. The servers utilizing this shared HEX approach allow them to continue to be used if the site later moves to RackCDU.

To learn more about Asetek liquid cooling, stop by booth 1625 at SC17 in Denver.

Appointments for in-depth discussions about Asetek’s data center liquid cooling solutions at SC17 may be scheduled by sending an email to questions@asetek.com.

 

Subscribe to HPCwire's Weekly Update!

Be the most informed person in the room! Stay ahead of the tech trends with industy updates delivered to you every week!

Q&A with Google’s Bill Magro, an HPCwire Person to Watch in 2021

June 11, 2021

Last Fall Bill Magro joined Google as CTO of HPC, a newly created position, after two decades at Intel, where he was responsible for the company's HPC strategy. This interview was conducted by email at the beginning of A Read more…

A Carbon Crisis Looms Over Supercomputing. How Do We Stop It?

June 11, 2021

Supercomputing is extraordinarily power-hungry, with many of the top systems measuring their peak demand in the megawatts due to powerful processors and their correspondingly powerful cooling systems. As a result, these Read more…

Honeywell Quantum and Cambridge Quantum Plan to Merge; More to Follow?

June 10, 2021

Earlier this week, Honeywell announced plans to merge its quantum computing business, Honeywell Quantum Solutions (HQS), which focuses on trapped ion hardware, with the U.K.-based Cambridge Quantum Computing (CQC), which Read more…

ISC21 Keynoter Xiaoxiang Zhu to Deliver a Bird’s-Eye View of a Changing World

June 10, 2021

ISC High Performance 2021 – once again virtual due to the ongoing pandemic – is swiftly approaching. In contrast to last year’s conference, which canceled its in-person component with a couple months’ notice, ISC Read more…

Xilinx Expands Versal Chip Family With 7 New Versal AI Edge Chips

June 10, 2021

FPGA chip vendor Xilinx has been busy over the last several years cranking out its Versal AI Core, Versal Premium and Versal Prime chip families to fill customer compute needs in the cloud, datacenters, networks and more. Now Xilinx is expanding its reach to the booming edge... Read more…

AWS Solution Channel

Building highly-available HPC infrastructure on AWS

Reminder: You can learn a lot from AWS HPC engineers by subscribing to the HPC Tech Short YouTube channel, and following the AWS HPC Blog channel. Read more…

Space Weather Prediction Gets a Supercomputing Boost

June 9, 2021

Solar winds are a hot topic in the HPC world right now, with supercomputer-powered research spanning from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (which used Oak Ridge’s Titan system) to University College London (which used resources from the DiRAC HPC facility). One of the larger... Read more…

A Carbon Crisis Looms Over Supercomputing. How Do We Stop It?

June 11, 2021

Supercomputing is extraordinarily power-hungry, with many of the top systems measuring their peak demand in the megawatts due to powerful processors and their c Read more…

Honeywell Quantum and Cambridge Quantum Plan to Merge; More to Follow?

June 10, 2021

Earlier this week, Honeywell announced plans to merge its quantum computing business, Honeywell Quantum Solutions (HQS), which focuses on trapped ion hardware, Read more…

ISC21 Keynoter Xiaoxiang Zhu to Deliver a Bird’s-Eye View of a Changing World

June 10, 2021

ISC High Performance 2021 – once again virtual due to the ongoing pandemic – is swiftly approaching. In contrast to last year’s conference, which canceled Read more…

Xilinx Expands Versal Chip Family With 7 New Versal AI Edge Chips

June 10, 2021

FPGA chip vendor Xilinx has been busy over the last several years cranking out its Versal AI Core, Versal Premium and Versal Prime chip families to fill customer compute needs in the cloud, datacenters, networks and more. Now Xilinx is expanding its reach to the booming edge... Read more…

What is Thermodynamic Computing and Could It Become Important?

June 3, 2021

What, exactly, is thermodynamic computing? (Yes, we know everything obeys thermodynamic laws.) A trio of researchers from Microsoft, UC San Diego, and Georgia Tech have written an interesting viewpoint in the June issue... Read more…

AMD Introduces 3D Chiplets, Demos Vertical Cache on Zen 3 CPUs

June 2, 2021

At Computex 2021, held virtually this week, AMD showcased a new 3D chiplet architecture that will be used for future high-performance computing products set to Read more…

Nvidia Expands Its Certified Server Models, Unveils DGX SuperPod Subscriptions

June 2, 2021

Nvidia is busy this week at the virtual Computex 2021 Taipei technology show, announcing an expansion of its nascent Nvidia-certified server program, a range of Read more…

Using HPC Cloud, Researchers Investigate the COVID-19 Lab Leak Hypothesis

May 27, 2021

At the end of 2019, strange pneumonia cases started cropping up in Wuhan, China. As Wuhan (then China, then the world) scrambled to contain what would, of cours Read more…

AMD Chipmaker TSMC to Use AMD Chips for Chipmaking

May 8, 2021

TSMC has tapped AMD to support its major manufacturing and R&D workloads. AMD will provide its Epyc Rome 7702P CPUs – with 64 cores operating at a base cl Read more…

Intel Launches 10nm ‘Ice Lake’ Datacenter CPU with Up to 40 Cores

April 6, 2021

The wait is over. Today Intel officially launched its 10nm datacenter CPU, the third-generation Intel Xeon Scalable processor, codenamed Ice Lake. With up to 40 Read more…

Berkeley Lab Debuts Perlmutter, World’s Fastest AI Supercomputer

May 27, 2021

A ribbon-cutting ceremony held virtually at Berkeley Lab's National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) today marked the official launch of Perlmutter – aka NERSC-9 – the GPU-accelerated supercomputer built by HPE in partnership with Nvidia and AMD. Read more…

CERN Is Betting Big on Exascale

April 1, 2021

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) involves 23 countries, 15,000 researchers, billions of dollars a year, and the biggest machine in the worl Read more…

Google Launches TPU v4 AI Chips

May 20, 2021

Google CEO Sundar Pichai spoke for only one minute and 42 seconds about the company’s latest TPU v4 Tensor Processing Units during his keynote at the Google I Read more…

Iran Gains HPC Capabilities with Launch of ‘Simorgh’ Supercomputer

May 18, 2021

Iran is said to be developing domestic supercomputing technology to advance the processing of scientific, economic, political and military data, and to strengthen the nation’s position in the age of AI and big data. On Sunday, Iran unveiled the Simorgh supercomputer, which will deliver.... Read more…

HPE Launches Storage Line Loaded with IBM’s Spectrum Scale File System

April 6, 2021

HPE today launched a new family of storage solutions bundled with IBM’s Spectrum Scale Erasure Code Edition parallel file system (description below) and featu Read more…

Quantum Computer Start-up IonQ Plans IPO via SPAC

March 8, 2021

IonQ, a Maryland-based quantum computing start-up working with ion trap technology, plans to go public via a Special Purpose Acquisition Company (SPAC) merger a Read more…

Leading Solution Providers

Contributors

10nm, 7nm, 5nm…. Should the Chip Nanometer Metric Be Replaced?

June 1, 2020

The biggest cool factor in server chips is the nanometer. AMD beating Intel to a CPU built on a 7nm process node* – with 5nm and 3nm on the way – has been i Read more…

Julia Update: Adoption Keeps Climbing; Is It a Python Challenger?

January 13, 2021

The rapid adoption of Julia, the open source, high level programing language with roots at MIT, shows no sign of slowing according to data from Julialang.org. I Read more…

AMD Launches Epyc ‘Milan’ with 19 SKUs for HPC, Enterprise and Hyperscale

March 15, 2021

At a virtual launch event held today (Monday), AMD revealed its third-generation Epyc “Milan” CPU lineup: a set of 19 SKUs -- including the flagship 64-core, 280-watt 7763 part --  aimed at HPC, enterprise and cloud workloads. Notably, the third-gen Epyc Milan chips achieve 19 percent... Read more…

Can Deep Learning Replace Numerical Weather Prediction?

March 3, 2021

Numerical weather prediction (NWP) is a mainstay of supercomputing. Some of the first applications of the first supercomputers dealt with climate modeling, and Read more…

Livermore’s El Capitan Supercomputer to Debut HPE ‘Rabbit’ Near Node Local Storage

February 18, 2021

A near node local storage innovation called Rabbit factored heavily into Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s decision to select Cray’s proposal for its CORAL-2 machine, the lab’s first exascale-class supercomputer, El Capitan. Details of this new storage technology were revealed... Read more…

GTC21: Nvidia Launches cuQuantum; Dips a Toe in Quantum Computing

April 13, 2021

Yesterday Nvidia officially dipped a toe into quantum computing with the launch of cuQuantum SDK, a development platform for simulating quantum circuits on GPU-accelerated systems. As Nvidia CEO Jensen Huang emphasized in his keynote, Nvidia doesn’t plan to build... Read more…

Microsoft to Provide World’s Most Powerful Weather & Climate Supercomputer for UK’s Met Office

April 22, 2021

More than 14 months ago, the UK government announced plans to invest £1.2 billion ($1.56 billion) into weather and climate supercomputing, including procuremen Read more…

African Supercomputing Center Inaugurates ‘Toubkal,’ Most Powerful Supercomputer on the Continent

February 25, 2021

Historically, Africa hasn’t exactly been synonymous with supercomputing. There are only a handful of supercomputers on the continent, with few ranking on the Read more…

  • arrow
  • Click Here for More Headlines
  • arrow
HPCwire