Momentum Builds for US Exascale

By Alex R. Larzelere

January 9, 2018

2018 looks to be a great year for the U.S. exascale program. The last several months of 2017 revealed a number of important developments that help put the U.S. quest for exascale on a solid foundation. In my last article, I provided a description of the elements of the High Performance Computing (HPC) ecosystem and its importance for advancing and sustaining this strategically important technology. It is good to report that the U.S. exascale program seems to be hitting the full range of ecosystem elements.

As a reminder, the National Strategic Computing Initiative (NSCI) assigned the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to execute a joint program to deliver capable exascale computing that emphasizes sustained performance on relevant applications and analytic computing to support their missions. The overall DOE program is known as the Exascale Computing Initiative (ECI) and is funded by the SC Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program and the NNSA Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program. Elements of the ECI include the procurement of exascale class systems and the facility investments in site preparations and non-recurring engineering. Also, ECI includes the Exascale Computing Project (ECP) that will conduct the Research and Development (R&D) in the areas of middleware (software stack), applications, and hardware to ensure that exascale systems will be productively usable to address Office of Science and NNSA missions.

In the area of hardware – the last part of 2017 revealed a number of important developments. First and most visible, is the initial installation of the SC Summit system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the NNSA Sierra system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Both systems are being built by IBM using Power9 processors with Nvidia GPU co-processors. The machines will have two Power9 CPUs per system board and will use a Mellenox InfinBand interconnection network.

Beyond that, the architecture of each machine is slightly different. The ORNL Summit machine will use six Nvidia Volta GPUs per two Power9 CPUs on a system board and will use NVLink to connect to 512 GB of memory. The Summit machine will use a combination of air and water cooling. The LLNL Sierra machine will use four Nvidia Voltas and 256 GB of memory connected with the two Power9 CPUs per board. The Sierra machine will use only air cooling. As was reported by HPCwire in November 2017, the peak performance of the Summit machine will be about 200 petaflops and the Sierra machine is expected to be about 125 petaflops.

Installation of both the Summit and Sierra systems is currently underway with about 279 racks (without system boards) and the interconnection network already installed at each lab. Now that IBM has formally released the Power9 processors, the racks will soon start being populated with the boards that contain the CPUs, GPUs and memory. Once that is completed, the labs will start their acceptance testing, which is expected to be finished later in 2018.

Another important piece of news about the DOE exascale program is the clarification of the status of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Aurora machine. This system was part of the collaborative CORAL procurement that also selected the Sierra and Summit machines. The Aurora system is being manufactured by Intel with Cray Inc. acting as the system integrator. The machine was originally scheduled to be an approximately 180 peak petaflops system using the Knights Hill third generation Phi processors. However, during SC17, we learned that Intel is removing the Knights Hill chip from its roadmap. This explains the reason why during the September ASCR Advisory Committee (ASCAC) meeting, Barb Helland, the Associate Director of the ASCR office, announced that the Aurora system would be delayed to 2021 and upgraded to 1,000 petaflops (aka 1 exaflops).

The full details of the revised Aurora system are still under wraps. We have learned that it is going to use “novel” processor technologies, but exactly what that means is unclear. The ASCR program subjected the new Aurora design to an independent outside review. It found, “The hardware choices/design within the node is extremely well thought through. Early projections suggest that the system will support a broad workload.” The review committee even suggested that, “The system as presented is exciting with many novel technology choices that can change the way computing is done.” The Aurora system is in the process of being “re-baselined” by the DOE. Hopefully, once that is complete, we will get a better understanding of the meaning of “novel” technologies. If things go as expected, the changes to Aurora will allow the U.S. to achieve exascale by 2021.

An important, but sometimes overlooked, aspect of the U.S. exascale program is the number of computing systems that are being procured, tested and optimized by the ASCR and ASC programs as part of the buildup to exascale. Other computing systems involved with “pre-exascale” systems include the 8.6 petaflops Mira computer at ANL and the 14 petaflops Cori system at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab (LBNL). The NNSA also has the 14.1 petaflops Trinity system at Los Alamos National Lab (LANL). Up to 20 percent of these precursor machines will serve as testbeds to enable computing science R&D needed to ensure that the U.S. exascale systems will be able to productively address important national security and discovery science objectives.

The last, but certainly not least, bit of hardware news is that the ASCR and ASC programs are expected to start their next computer system procurement processes in early 2018. During her presentation to the U.S. Consortium for the Advancement of Supercomputing (USCAS), Barb Helland told the group that she expects that the Request for Proposals (RFP) will soon be released for the follow-ons to the Summit and Sierra systems. These systems, to be delivered in the 2021-2023 timeframe, are expected to be provide in excess of exaFLOP/s performance. The procurement process to be used will be similar to the CORAL procurement and will be a collaboration between the DOE-SC ASCR and NNSA ASC programs. The ORNL exascale system will be called Frontier and the LLNL system will be known as El Capitan.

2017 also saw significant developments for the people element of the U.S HPC ecosystem. As was previously reported, at last September’s ASCAC meeting, Paul Messina announced that he would be stepping down as the ECP Director on October 1st. Doug Kothe, who was previously the applications development lead, was announced as the new ECP Director. Upon taking the Director job, Kothe with his deputy, Stephen Lee of LANL, instituted a process to review the organization and management of the ECP. At the December ASCAC conference call, Doug reported that the review had been completed and resulted in a number of changes. This included paring down ECP from five to four components (applications development, software technology, hardware and integration, and project management). He also reported that ECP has implemented a more structured management approach that includes a revised work breakdown structure (WBS) and additional milestones, new key performance parameters and risk management approaches. Finally, the new ECP Director reported that they had established an Extended Leadership Team with a number of new faces.

Another important, element of the HPC ecosystem are the people doing the R&D and other work need to keep the ecosystem going. The DOE ECI involves a huge number of people. Last year, there were about 500 researchers who attended the ECP Principle Investigator meeting and there are many more involved in other DOE/NNSA programs and from industry. The ASCR and ASC programs are involved with a number of programs to educate and train future members of the HPC ecosystem. Such programs are the ASCR and ASC co-funded Computational Science Graduate Fellowship (CSGF) and the Early Career Research Program. The NNSA offers similar opportunities. Both the ASCR and ASC programs continue to coordinate with National Science Foundation educational programs to ensure that America’s top computational science talent continues to flow into the ecosystem.

Finally, in addition to people and hardware, the U.S. program continues to develop the software stack (aka middleware) to develop end users’ applications to ensure that exascale will be used productively. Doug Kothe reported that ECP has adopted standard Software Development Kits. These SDKs are designed to support the goal of building a comprehensive, coherent software stack that enables application developers to productively write highly parallel applications that effectively target diverse exascale architectures. Kothe also reported that ECP is making good progress in developing applications software. This includes the implementation of innovative approaches that include Machine Learning to utilize the GPUs that are part of the future exascale computers.

All in all – the last several months of 2017 have set the stage for a very exciting 2018 for the U.S. exascale program. It has been about 5 years since the ORNL Titan supercomputer came onto the stage at #1 on the TOP500 list. Over that time, other more powerful DOE computers have come online (Trinity, Cori, etc.) but they were overshadowed by Chinese and European systems. It remains unclear whether or not the upcoming exascale systems will put the U.S. back on the top of the supercomputing world. However, the recent developments help to reassure the country is not going to give up its computing leadership position without a fight. That is great news because for more than 60 years, the U.S. has sought leadership in high performance computing for the strategic value it provides in the areas of national security, discovery science, energy security, and economic competitiveness.

About the Author

Alex Larzelere is a senior fellow at the U.S. Council on Competitiveness, the president of Larzelere & Associates Consulting and HPCwire’s policy editor. He is currently a technologist, speaker and author on a number of disruptive technologies that include: advanced modeling and simulation; high performance computing; artificial intelligence; the Internet of Things; and additive manufacturing. Alex’s career has included time in federal service (working closely with DOE national labs), private industry, and as founder of a small business. Throughout that time, he led programs that implemented the use of cutting edge advanced computing technologies to enable high resolution, multi-physics simulations of complex physical systems. Alex is the author of “Delivering Insight: The History of the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI).”

Subscribe to HPCwire's Weekly Update!

Be the most informed person in the room! Stay ahead of the tech trends with industy updates delivered to you every week!

Q&A with Altair CEO James Scapa, an HPCwire Person to Watch in 2021

May 14, 2021

Chairman, CEO and co-founder of Altair James R. Scapa closed several acquisitions for the company in 2020, including the purchase and integration of Univa and Ellexus. Scapa founded Altair more than 35 years ago with two Read more…

HLRS HPC Helps to Model Muscle Movements

May 13, 2021

The growing scale of HPC is allowing simulation of more and more complex systems at greater detail than ever before, particularly in the biological research spheres. Now, researchers at the University of Stuttgart are le Read more…

Behind the Met Office’s Procurement of a Billion-Dollar Microsoft System

May 13, 2021

The UK’s national weather service, the Met Office, caused shockwaves of curiosity a few weeks ago when it formally announced that its forthcoming billion-dollar supercomputer – expected to be the most powerful weather and climate-focused supercomputer in the world when it launches in 2022... Read more…

AMD, GlobalFoundries Commit to $1.6 Billion Wafer Supply Deal

May 13, 2021

AMD plans to purchase $1.6 billion worth of wafers from GlobalFoundries in the 2022 to 2024 timeframe, the chipmaker revealed today (May 13) in an SEC filing. In the face of global semiconductor shortages and record-high demand, AMD is renegotiating its Wafer Supply Agreement and bumping up capacity. Read more…

Hyperion Offers Snapshot of Quantum Computing Market

May 13, 2021

The nascent quantum computer (QC) market will grow 27 percent annually (CAGR) reaching $830 million in 2024 according to an update provided today by analyst firm Hyperion Research at the HPC User Forum being held this we Read more…

AWS Solution Channel

Numerical weather prediction on AWS Graviton2

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is a numerical weather prediction (NWP) system designed to serve both atmospheric research and operational forecasting needs. Read more…

Hyperion: HPC Server Market Ekes 1 Percent Gain in 2020, Storage Poised for ‘Tipping Point’

May 12, 2021

The HPC User Forum meeting taking place virtually this week (May 11-13) kicked off with Hyperion Research’s market update, covering the 2020 period. Although the HPC server market had been facing a 6.7 percent COVID-re Read more…

Behind the Met Office’s Procurement of a Billion-Dollar Microsoft System

May 13, 2021

The UK’s national weather service, the Met Office, caused shockwaves of curiosity a few weeks ago when it formally announced that its forthcoming billion-dollar supercomputer – expected to be the most powerful weather and climate-focused supercomputer in the world when it launches in 2022... Read more…

AMD, GlobalFoundries Commit to $1.6 Billion Wafer Supply Deal

May 13, 2021

AMD plans to purchase $1.6 billion worth of wafers from GlobalFoundries in the 2022 to 2024 timeframe, the chipmaker revealed today (May 13) in an SEC filing. In the face of global semiconductor shortages and record-high demand, AMD is renegotiating its Wafer Supply Agreement and bumping up capacity. Read more…

Hyperion Offers Snapshot of Quantum Computing Market

May 13, 2021

The nascent quantum computer (QC) market will grow 27 percent annually (CAGR) reaching $830 million in 2024 according to an update provided today by analyst fir Read more…

Hyperion: HPC Server Market Ekes 1 Percent Gain in 2020, Storage Poised for ‘Tipping Point’

May 12, 2021

The HPC User Forum meeting taking place virtually this week (May 11-13) kicked off with Hyperion Research’s market update, covering the 2020 period. Although Read more…

IBM Debuts Qiskit Runtime for Quantum Computing; Reports Dramatic Speed-up

May 11, 2021

In conjunction with its virtual Think event, IBM today introduced an enhanced Qiskit Runtime Software for quantum computing, which it says demonstrated 120x spe Read more…

AMD Chipmaker TSMC to Use AMD Chips for Chipmaking

May 8, 2021

TSMC has tapped AMD to support its major manufacturing and R&D workloads. AMD will provide its Epyc Rome 7702P CPUs – with 64 cores operating at a base cl Read more…

Fast Pass Through (Some of) the Quantum Landscape with ORNL’s Raphael Pooser

May 7, 2021

In a rather remarkable way, and despite the frequent hype, the behind-the-scenes work of developing quantum computing has dramatically accelerated in the past f Read more…

IBM Research Debuts 2nm Test Chip with 50 Billion Transistors

May 6, 2021

IBM Research today announced the successful prototyping of the world's first 2 nanometer chip, fabricated with silicon nanosheet technology on a standard 300mm Read more…

AMD Chipmaker TSMC to Use AMD Chips for Chipmaking

May 8, 2021

TSMC has tapped AMD to support its major manufacturing and R&D workloads. AMD will provide its Epyc Rome 7702P CPUs – with 64 cores operating at a base cl Read more…

Intel Launches 10nm ‘Ice Lake’ Datacenter CPU with Up to 40 Cores

April 6, 2021

The wait is over. Today Intel officially launched its 10nm datacenter CPU, the third-generation Intel Xeon Scalable processor, codenamed Ice Lake. With up to 40 Read more…

Julia Update: Adoption Keeps Climbing; Is It a Python Challenger?

January 13, 2021

The rapid adoption of Julia, the open source, high level programing language with roots at MIT, shows no sign of slowing according to data from Julialang.org. I Read more…

CERN Is Betting Big on Exascale

April 1, 2021

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) involves 23 countries, 15,000 researchers, billions of dollars a year, and the biggest machine in the worl Read more…

HPE Launches Storage Line Loaded with IBM’s Spectrum Scale File System

April 6, 2021

HPE today launched a new family of storage solutions bundled with IBM’s Spectrum Scale Erasure Code Edition parallel file system (description below) and featu Read more…

10nm, 7nm, 5nm…. Should the Chip Nanometer Metric Be Replaced?

June 1, 2020

The biggest cool factor in server chips is the nanometer. AMD beating Intel to a CPU built on a 7nm process node* – with 5nm and 3nm on the way – has been i Read more…

Saudi Aramco Unveils Dammam 7, Its New Top Ten Supercomputer

January 21, 2021

By revenue, oil and gas giant Saudi Aramco is one of the largest companies in the world, and it has historically employed commensurate amounts of supercomputing Read more…

Quantum Computer Start-up IonQ Plans IPO via SPAC

March 8, 2021

IonQ, a Maryland-based quantum computing start-up working with ion trap technology, plans to go public via a Special Purpose Acquisition Company (SPAC) merger a Read more…

Leading Solution Providers

Contributors

AMD Launches Epyc ‘Milan’ with 19 SKUs for HPC, Enterprise and Hyperscale

March 15, 2021

At a virtual launch event held today (Monday), AMD revealed its third-generation Epyc “Milan” CPU lineup: a set of 19 SKUs -- including the flagship 64-core, 280-watt 7763 part --  aimed at HPC, enterprise and cloud workloads. Notably, the third-gen Epyc Milan chips achieve 19 percent... Read more…

Can Deep Learning Replace Numerical Weather Prediction?

March 3, 2021

Numerical weather prediction (NWP) is a mainstay of supercomputing. Some of the first applications of the first supercomputers dealt with climate modeling, and Read more…

Livermore’s El Capitan Supercomputer to Debut HPE ‘Rabbit’ Near Node Local Storage

February 18, 2021

A near node local storage innovation called Rabbit factored heavily into Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s decision to select Cray’s proposal for its CORAL-2 machine, the lab’s first exascale-class supercomputer, El Capitan. Details of this new storage technology were revealed... Read more…

African Supercomputing Center Inaugurates ‘Toubkal,’ Most Powerful Supercomputer on the Continent

February 25, 2021

Historically, Africa hasn’t exactly been synonymous with supercomputing. There are only a handful of supercomputers on the continent, with few ranking on the Read more…

GTC21: Nvidia Launches cuQuantum; Dips a Toe in Quantum Computing

April 13, 2021

Yesterday Nvidia officially dipped a toe into quantum computing with the launch of cuQuantum SDK, a development platform for simulating quantum circuits on GPU-accelerated systems. As Nvidia CEO Jensen Huang emphasized in his keynote, Nvidia doesn’t plan to build... Read more…

New Deep Learning Algorithm Solves Rubik’s Cube

July 25, 2018

Solving (and attempting to solve) Rubik’s Cube has delighted millions of puzzle lovers since 1974 when the cube was invented by Hungarian sculptor and archite Read more…

The History of Supercomputing vs. COVID-19

March 9, 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a greater challenge to the high-performance computing community than any before. HPCwire's coverage of the supercomputing response t Read more…

Microsoft to Provide World’s Most Powerful Weather & Climate Supercomputer for UK’s Met Office

April 22, 2021

More than 14 months ago, the UK government announced plans to invest £1.2 billion ($1.56 billion) into weather and climate supercomputing, including procuremen Read more…

  • arrow
  • Click Here for More Headlines
  • arrow
HPCwire