URISC@SC17 and the #LongestLastMile

By Elizabeth Leake, STEM-Trek

January 11, 2018

A multinational delegation recently attended the Understanding Risk in Shared CyberEcosystems workshop, or URISC@SC17, in Denver, Colorado. URISC participants and presenters from 11 countries, including eight African nations, 12 U.S. states, Canada, India and Nepal, also attended SC17, the annual international conference for high performance computing (HPC), networking, storage and analysis that drew nearly 13,000 attendees. Von Welch (Indiana University), who directs the Center for Trustworthy Scientific Cyberinfrastructure, provided expert oversight for the URISC program. Welch invited nine specialists who presented open-source tools and cybersecurity best practices.

URISC Presenter Nick Roy, Director of Technology and Strategy for Internet2’s InCommon Federation, explained eduGAIN and its benefits to the global research community. “From a local management standpoint, eduGAIN saves managers time and effort because home credentials provide authentication and access to resources, instrumentation and data that are physically located at institutions in in 48 member countries that comprise an interfederated trust fabric,” said Roy. “It’s more secure, and takes less time to manage since researchers must only remember one user name and password,” he added.

1 eduGAIN member map. Key: dark-blue indicates eduGAIN membership, green are voting-only, and aqua indicates “candidate” sites.

While eduGAIN’s convenience and added security would be welcome in the many resource-constrained regions represented by URISC delegates, it was difficult for some to imagine that they could ever engage; there are many physical and financial barriers to entry.

For more than 50 years, HPC has supported tremendous advances in all areas of science. But densely-populated communities can more easily support subscription-based commodity networks and energy infrastructure that make it more affordable for urban universities to engage globally. Research centers based in sparsely-populated regions are extremely disadvantaged. There are fewer partners with which to cost-share connectivity, and copper thieves make it challenging to sustain infrastructure in the poorest regions. Their universities have a more difficult time recruiting and retaining skilled personnel who must travel further for training. In some cases, consumer prices are 70-80 percent lower, so hardware and software purchases are inflated; everything is shipped from developed countries which increases the cost.

But these regions reflect globally-significant human capacity, environmental factors, biodiversity, geology and minerals. Each site has a unique perspective of our universe, and less-populated areas offer the most detailed and unfettered vantage points. We can’t expect rural universities to pay for the pipe used by the rest of the world, however. The effort will require global cooperation, with broad public and private financial support. When researchers everywhere can access data generated by and stored at these sites, progress will be accelerated toward solutions to problems that impact global climate, environment, food and water security, public health, quality of life, and world peace.

Justifying #LongestLastMile engagement one case at a time…

The pan-European data network for research and education, GÉANT, with U.S. stakeholders, forged the pathway that originally made eduGAIN possible. It was conceived by the global High Energy Physics (HEP) community whose users required access to HEP instrumentation and data located in the U.S. (Laser Inferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, LIGO) and Europe (Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, LHC-CERN).

The Office of CyberInfrastructure and Computational Biology at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID is part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health), is another such driver, and NIAID Chief Information Officer Michael Tartakovsky is eager to accommodate more global researchers who are fighting infectious diseases.

NIAID supports centers in Mali and Uganda that provide support and services for collaborations working on treatments and vaccines for Malaria, Ebola, and tuberculosis (TB) via eduGAIN and GÉANT’s research and education federation (REFEDS R&S). Beyond Africa, NIH looks forward to providing access to research staff at Fudan University when the China Federation joins eduGAIN. They are also working with the Indian Federation and its National Institute for Research in TB. “By joining the global trust federation network, we can all work together to solve the most daunting global infectious disease challenges,” said Tartakovsky.

The computational biology community is working to solve the world’s direst grand challenges. South African Computational Biologist Nicola Mulder’s group from the University of Cape Town’s (UCT) Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine is analyzing sequence data from African human genomes that are of critical importance to public health and food security research. Until the South African Centre for High Performance Computing (CHPC) introduced the Lengau supercomputer in 2016, UCT ran computations in the U.S. on Blue Waters at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). “We had access to NCSA computing facilities and then returned the processed data to South Africa; the processing and transfer took months to complete,” said Mulder.

Global energy demands will rely on a larger supply from alternative sources in the future, and Africa is expected to play a major role in energy production and innovation. “The need to power portable electronic devices and manage peaks and valleys associated with solar and wind energy will require more advanced battery storage solutions that will likely require minerals and rare earths that are abundant in sub-Saharan Africa,” said Principal Researcher Rapela Regina Maphanga (South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Modelling and Digital Science Division).

The global astrophysics and astronomy communities are watching sub-Saharan Africa with great anticipation. The Square Kilometer Array (SKA) is being built in the great Karoo region of South Africa and will be the world’s biggest radio telescope. With an expected 50-year lifespan, SKA is investing in regional infrastructure and human capital development, but SKA can’t do it alone; African infrastructure to serve the global research needs of the future will require a much larger investment.

In their SC17 keynote, Professor Phil Diamond (SKA Organization Director General) and Dr. Rosie Bolton (SKA Regional Centre Project Scientist) described the SKA project and its computational challenges. For the first phase of the project, which represents a fraction of what it will be in the future, the total processing power required in the SKA observatory’s Science Data Processors is about 250 PF (peak). Each SKA site is expected to generate up to 1 PB of data each day during full operations (from about 2026). SKA data will be globally-distributed to SKA “Regional Centres” which will provide researchers with access to data for analysis and processing. The design of this federated network is an interesting challenge since it will likely also support users from other observatories and even from other science disciplines as part of the HPC and networking infrastructures supported in each country or region.

With SKA’s presence in South Africa, a larger astro research presence will begin to take root in the region that will demand access to the global treasure-trove of data currently generated by six telescopes supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation, and complementary instrumentation, such as the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), a precursor to SKA, in Western Australia at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO).

LIGO’s Identity and Access Management (IAM) Architect Scott Koranda (University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee which first piloted eduGAIN in 2014) said that MWA is establishing a new IAM infrastructure that is built on federated identity. Their services are published in the Australian Access Federation (AAF) and will soon be “pushed” into eduGAIN. “The eduGAIN component is important because MWA, like SKA, is a global project with scientists who live in and work from many countries,” said Koranda.

The important role NRENs play and their status in sub-Saharan Africa

African regional-serving universities benefit from fast and affordable bandwidth delivered via National Research and Education Networks, or NRENs, that engage with larger networks, such as the UbuntuNet Alliance in eastern and southern Africa, and WACREN in Western and Central Africa, to deliver more advanced service options. The major backbone then allies with Internet2 in the U.S. and GÉANT in Europe. Through this complex fabric of trust, it’s possible for NRENs to deliver eduGAIN service.

But, as was explained, developing an NREN from scratch is challenging for stakeholders in sparsely-populated, resource-constrained regions. In his December presentation to the Southern African Development Community (SADC) Cyberinfrastructure Forum that was co-located with the South African Centre for High Performance Computing’s (CHPC) National Meeting in Pretoria, SANReN’s Director Leon Staphorst cited a 2016 World Bank Report by Michael Foley titled, “The Role and Status of NRENs in Africa.” The document serves as an important guide for those who wish to develop, use or fund an NREN.2

Photo: Leon Staphorst (SANRen)

Staphorst shared a table of progress being made toward African NREN development. Among nations represented at URISC that participate in the African HPC Ecosystems and SKA Readiness Projects (see map and slide excerpt below), South Africa is the only country whose researchers use eduGAIN (through relationships with GÉANT, SANReN and SAFIRE). In South Africa’s case, the HEP community’s need to reach LIGO/LHC in Geneva, Switzerland was a driver, with biomed demand a close second; specifically, access to a global TB research protocol required by scientists at the University of Cape Town and Stellenbosch University.

Next in queue among HPC Ecosystems sites that are prospective eduGAIN members given the operational status of their NRENs and subsequent engagement with UbuntuNet, are Ethiopia, Kenya and Zambia. It’s likely that Madagascar and Namibia will be next, followed by Botswana, Mauritius, and Mozambique.

3 HPC Ecosystems Project footprint

 

4 HPC Ecosystems Project sites/NREN Status

It can still require a considerable amount of time to move big data around the world, however. “African network traffic is currently routed via Europe before it travels to the U.S., and elsewhere,” said Julio Ibarra (Florida International University AVP for Technology Augmented Research). “Depending on the amount of data transferred among eduGAIN 48 member nations, the distance and number of Internet exchange sites along the way could cause significant delays,” he added.

Ibarra’s HPC On Common Ground @SC16 workshop presentation described a collaborative effort to facilitate “big data” transfers through the development of international software defined exchange points (SDX). The “AtlanticWave-SDX” is an NSF-funded project at Florida International University and the Georgia Institute of Technology, with support from Brazil’s NREN, Rede Nacional de Ensino e Pesquisa (RNP, and the Academic Network of Sao Paulo (ANSP). An SDX enables a domain scientist connected to an SDN network to use the network more intelligently; e.g., scheduling use when resources are available, or requesting a more favorable path.

In the future, Ibarra’s group hopes to explore the feasibility of establishing an SDX in West Africa, in collaboration with African NRENs, based on future availability of submarine cable spectrum for use by research and education communities between Western Africa and Brazil (scheduled 2018 and beyond, per Foley’s report).

5 Image from GEANT website.

Success, speed and reliability require some magic in the middle…

Irrespective of regional networks and the IAM infrastructure deployed at each site, moving and sharing massive amounts of data around the world requires a certain amount of geopolitical cooperation, compatible middleware and universally-adopted toolkits. One such resource is Globus which can securely and, more importantly, reliably transfer data in many scenarios where network availability and quality is highly variable. “Globus has already been successfully used on H3ABioNet to move and share data among far-flung research groups in Africa, and is currently being evaluated for broader adoption by a number of institutions in South Africa,” said Globus Co-Founder Ian Foster (University of Chicago).

With supercomputers capable of processing trillions of calculations per second, it’s unreasonable that critically-important research processes still require days or even months to complete. In light of current and anticipated global grand challenges, an accelerated process of discovery is fundamentally important to future generations’ prosperity, health and social stability. Developing the e-Infrastructure and human capital that serve the #LongestLastMile will require a globally-collaborative endeavor and investment.

About URISC@SC17

URISC@SC17 was STEM-Trek Nonprofit’s third SC co-located workshop. Last year’s “HPC On Common Ground @SC16” program in Salt Lake City featured a food security theme. The SC17 program was led by Elizabeth Leake (STEM-Trek) and Von Welch (Indiana University), and was financially-supported by U.S. National Science Foundation grants managed by Indiana University and Oklahoma State University, with STEM-Trek donations from GoogleCorelight, SC17 General Chair Bernd Mohr (Jülich Supercomputing Centre) and SC17 Inclusivity Chair Toni Collis (U-Edinburgh).

Thank you!

STEM-Trek wishes to thank URISC collaborator Von Welch (Indiana University/CTSC), the planning committee from IU and CHPC South Africa, reviewers, financial and in-kind sponsors, and presenters—especially Nick Roy (InCommon) who inspired this article. We appreciate delegates who took time to apply for and attend our workshop, and all who covered the bases in their absence at home.


1. Map available on the eduGAIN site (accessed December 2017).

2. Foley, Michael. 2016. The Role and Status of National Research and Education Networks in Africa. SABER-ICT Technical Paper Series; World Bank, Washington, DC. © World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/26258 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.

3. HPC Ecosystems Project Footprint, image provided by the South African CHPC.

4. NREN Status in HPC Ecosystems Project sites (per Foley report via Dec. 2017 Staphorst CHPC presentation)

5. GÉANT member sites, accessed from the GÉANT site, December 2017.

Subscribe to HPCwire's Weekly Update!

Be the most informed person in the room! Stay ahead of the tech trends with industy updates delivered to you every week!

Supercomputer Analysis Shows the Atmospheric Reach of the Tonga Eruption

January 21, 2022

On Saturday, an enormous eruption on the volcanic islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Haʻapai shook the Pacific Ocean. The explosion, which could be heard six thousand miles away in Alaska, caused tsunamis across the entir Read more…

NSB Issues US State of Science and Engineering 2022 Report

January 20, 2022

This week the National Science Board released its biannual U.S. State of Science and Engineering 2022 report, as required by the NSF Act. Broadly, the report presents a near-term view of S&E based mostly on 2019 data. To a large extent, this year’s edition echoes trends from the last few reports. The U.S. is still a world leader in R&D spending and S&E education... Read more…

Researchers Achieve 99 Percent Quantum Accuracy with Silicon-Embedded Qubits 

January 20, 2022

Researchers in Australia and the U.S. have made exciting headway in the quantum computing arms race. A multi-institutional team including the University of New South Wales and Sandia National Laboratory announced that th Read more…

Trio of Supercomputers Powers Estimate of Carbon in Earth’s Outer Core

January 20, 2022

Carbon is one of the essential building blocks of life on Earth, and it—along with hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen—is one of the key elements researchers look for when they search for habitable planets and work to unde Read more…

Multiverse Targets ‘Quantum Computing for the Masses’

January 19, 2022

The race to deliver quantum computing solutions that shield users from the underlying complexity of quantum computing is heating up quickly. One example is Multiverse Computing, a European company, which today launched the second financial services product in its Singularity product group. The new offering, Fair Price, “delivers a higher accuracy in fair price calculations for financial... Read more…

AWS Solution Channel

shutterstock 718231072

Accelerating drug discovery with Amazon EC2 Spot Instances

This post was contributed by Cristian Măgherușan-Stanciu, Sr. Specialist Solution Architect, EC2 Spot, with contributions from Cristian Kniep, Sr. Developer Advocate for HPC and AWS Batch at AWS, Carlos Manzanedo Rueda, Principal Solutions Architect, EC2 Spot at AWS, Ludvig Nordstrom, Principal Solutions Architect at AWS, Vytautas Gapsys, project group leader at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, and Carsten Kutzner, staff scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry. Read more…

Students at SC21: Out in Front, Alongside and Behind the Scenes

January 19, 2022

The Supercomputing Conference (SC) is one of the biggest international conferences dedicated to high-performance computing, networking, storage and analysis. SC21 was a true ‘hybrid’ conference, with a total of 380 o Read more…

Supercomputer Analysis Shows the Atmospheric Reach of the Tonga Eruption

January 21, 2022

On Saturday, an enormous eruption on the volcanic islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Haʻapai shook the Pacific Ocean. The explosion, which could be heard six tho Read more…

NSB Issues US State of Science and Engineering 2022 Report

January 20, 2022

This week the National Science Board released its biannual U.S. State of Science and Engineering 2022 report, as required by the NSF Act. Broadly, the report presents a near-term view of S&E based mostly on 2019 data. To a large extent, this year’s edition echoes trends from the last few reports. The U.S. is still a world leader in R&D spending and S&E education... Read more…

Multiverse Targets ‘Quantum Computing for the Masses’

January 19, 2022

The race to deliver quantum computing solutions that shield users from the underlying complexity of quantum computing is heating up quickly. One example is Multiverse Computing, a European company, which today launched the second financial services product in its Singularity product group. The new offering, Fair Price, “delivers a higher accuracy in fair price calculations for financial... Read more…

Students at SC21: Out in Front, Alongside and Behind the Scenes

January 19, 2022

The Supercomputing Conference (SC) is one of the biggest international conferences dedicated to high-performance computing, networking, storage and analysis. SC Read more…

Q-Ctrl – Tackling Quantum Hardware’s Noise Problems with Software

January 13, 2022

Implementing effective error mitigation and correction is a critical next step in advancing quantum computing. While a lot of attention has been given to effort Read more…

Nvidia Defends Arm Acquisition Deal: a ‘Once-in-a-Generation Opportunity’

January 13, 2022

GPU-maker Nvidia is continuing to try to keep its proposed acquisition of British chip IP vendor Arm Ltd. alive, despite continuing concerns from several governments around the world. In its latest action, Nvidia filed a 29-page response to the U.K. government to point out a list of potential benefits of the proposed $40 billion deal. Read more…

Nvidia Buys HPC Cluster Management Company Bright Computing

January 10, 2022

Graphics chip powerhouse Nvidia today announced that it has acquired HPC cluster management company Bright Computing for an undisclosed sum. Unlike Nvidia’s bid to purchase semiconductor IP company Arm, which has been stymied by regulatory challenges, the Bright deal is a straightforward acquisition that aims to expand... Read more…

SC21 Panel on Programming Models – Tackling Data Movement, DSLs, More

January 6, 2022

How will programming future systems differ from current practice? This is an ever-present question in computing. Yet it has, perhaps, never been more pressing g Read more…

IonQ Is First Quantum Startup to Go Public; Will It be First to Deliver Profits?

November 3, 2021

On October 1 of this year, IonQ became the first pure-play quantum computing start-up to go public. At this writing, the stock (NYSE: IONQ) was around $15 and its market capitalization was roughly $2.89 billion. Co-founder and chief scientist Chris Monroe says it was fun to have a few of the company’s roughly 100 employees travel to New York to ring the opening bell of the New York Stock... Read more…

US Closes in on Exascale: Frontier Installation Is Underway

September 29, 2021

At the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) meeting, held by Zoom this week (Sept. 29-30), it was revealed that the Frontier supercomputer is currently being installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tenn. The staff at the Oak Ridge Leadership... Read more…

AMD Launches Milan-X CPU with 3D V-Cache and Multichip Instinct MI200 GPU

November 8, 2021

At a virtual event this morning, AMD CEO Lisa Su unveiled the company’s latest and much-anticipated server products: the new Milan-X CPU, which leverages AMD’s new 3D V-Cache technology; and its new Instinct MI200 GPU, which provides up to 220 compute units across two Infinity Fabric-connected dies, delivering an astounding 47.9 peak double-precision teraflops. “We're in a high-performance computing megacycle, driven by the growing need to deploy additional compute performance... Read more…

Intel Reorgs HPC Group, Creates Two ‘Super Compute’ Groups

October 15, 2021

Following on changes made in June that moved Intel’s HPC unit out of the Data Platform Group and into the newly created Accelerated Computing Systems and Graphics (AXG) business unit, led by Raja Koduri, Intel is making further updates to the HPC group and announcing... Read more…

Nvidia Buys HPC Cluster Management Company Bright Computing

January 10, 2022

Graphics chip powerhouse Nvidia today announced that it has acquired HPC cluster management company Bright Computing for an undisclosed sum. Unlike Nvidia’s bid to purchase semiconductor IP company Arm, which has been stymied by regulatory challenges, the Bright deal is a straightforward acquisition that aims to expand... Read more…

D-Wave Embraces Gate-Based Quantum Computing; Charts Path Forward

October 21, 2021

Earlier this month D-Wave Systems, the quantum computing pioneer that has long championed quantum annealing-based quantum computing (and sometimes taken heat fo Read more…

Killer Instinct: AMD’s Multi-Chip MI200 GPU Readies for a Major Global Debut

October 21, 2021

AMD’s next-generation supercomputer GPU is on its way – and by all appearances, it’s about to make a name for itself. The AMD Radeon Instinct MI200 GPU (a successor to the MI100) will, over the next year, begin to power three massive systems on three continents: the United States’ exascale Frontier system; the European Union’s pre-exascale LUMI system; and Australia’s petascale Setonix system. Read more…

Three Chinese Exascale Systems Detailed at SC21: Two Operational and One Delayed

November 24, 2021

Details about two previously rumored Chinese exascale systems came to light during last week’s SC21 proceedings. Asked about these systems during the Top500 media briefing on Monday, Nov. 15, list author and co-founder Jack Dongarra indicated he was aware of some very impressive results, but withheld comment when asked directly if he had... Read more…

Leading Solution Providers

Contributors

Lessons from LLVM: An SC21 Fireside Chat with Chris Lattner

December 27, 2021

Today, the LLVM compiler infrastructure world is essentially inescapable in HPC. But back in the 2000 timeframe, LLVM (low level virtual machine) was just getting its start as a new way of thinking about how to overcome shortcomings in the Java Virtual Machine. At the time, Chris Lattner was a graduate student of... Read more…

2021 Gordon Bell Prize Goes to Exascale-Powered Quantum Supremacy Challenge

November 18, 2021

Today at the hybrid virtual/in-person SC21 conference, the organizers announced the winners of the 2021 ACM Gordon Bell Prize: a team of Chinese researchers leveraging the new exascale Sunway system to simulate quantum circuits. The Gordon Bell Prize, which comes with an award of $10,000 courtesy of HPC pioneer Gordon Bell, is awarded annually... Read more…

Julia Update: Adoption Keeps Climbing; Is It a Python Challenger?

January 13, 2021

The rapid adoption of Julia, the open source, high level programing language with roots at MIT, shows no sign of slowing according to data from Julialang.org. I Read more…

Nvidia Defends Arm Acquisition Deal: a ‘Once-in-a-Generation Opportunity’

January 13, 2022

GPU-maker Nvidia is continuing to try to keep its proposed acquisition of British chip IP vendor Arm Ltd. alive, despite continuing concerns from several governments around the world. In its latest action, Nvidia filed a 29-page response to the U.K. government to point out a list of potential benefits of the proposed $40 billion deal. Read more…

Top500: No Exascale, Fugaku Still Reigns, Polaris Debuts at #12

November 15, 2021

No exascale for you* -- at least, not within the High-Performance Linpack (HPL) territory of the latest Top500 list, issued today from the 33rd annual Supercomputing Conference (SC21), held in-person in St. Louis, Mo., and virtually, from Nov. 14–19. "We were hoping to have the first exascale system on this list but that didn’t happen," said Top500 co-author... Read more…

TACC Unveils Lonestar6 Supercomputer

November 1, 2021

The Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) is unveiling its latest supercomputer: Lonestar6, a three peak petaflops Dell system aimed at supporting researchers Read more…

10nm, 7nm, 5nm…. Should the Chip Nanometer Metric Be Replaced?

June 1, 2020

The biggest cool factor in server chips is the nanometer. AMD beating Intel to a CPU built on a 7nm process node* – with 5nm and 3nm on the way – has been i Read more…

Intel Launches 10nm ‘Ice Lake’ Datacenter CPU with Up to 40 Cores

April 6, 2021

The wait is over. Today Intel officially launched its 10nm datacenter CPU, the third-generation Intel Xeon Scalable processor, codenamed Ice Lake. With up to 40 Read more…

  • arrow
  • Click Here for More Headlines
  • arrow
HPCwire