Extreme Scale HPC: How Western Digital Corporation leveraged the virtually unlimited HPC capacity on AWS in their quest to speed up innovation and build better products

By Bala Thekkedath - Global HPC Marketing Lead, Amazon Web Services

December 10, 2018

Recently, AWS and Western Digital embarked on a very fun, challenging project of evaluating the impact of running their electro-magnetic simulations on a massive HPC cluster built on AWS using Amazon EC2 Spot Instances.   The lessons we learned and the results we were able to prove are very interesting and I am excited to share a quick overview here.

One of the biggest advantages of moving your HPC workloads to AWS is the ability to achieve extreme scales in terms of capacity and configurations – without a lot of upfront investment and heartache over long term commitments.  If you work for an organization that has moved HPC workloads to the cloud or has at least started the process by bursting to the cloud when demand spikes, you have experienced the agility and flexibility benefits afforded by the cloud.  You either have an individual account to access and request resources in the cloud or you request it via your HPC admin.  In both cases, you start building “your” cluster when you are ready. In most cases the cluster is built automatically by your job scheduler as you submit your jobs, and compute resources are ready within minutes. When the jobs are done, you shut down your cluster and stop paying for it.  When you request your cluster, unlike your on-premises environment, you can specify what type of CPUs (or GPUs, or FPGAs) you would like to run a particular application on.  Ever wonder how much faster your application would run if you had the latest CPU or GPU?  What if you wanted to determine if an I/O bandwidth optimized configuration versus CPU was better for parts of your workflow?   Well, now you can try many different configuration types without going through a cumbersome procurement process.  It becomes incredibly easy to fine tune specific portions of your HPC workflow, given the many different instance types available, and how easy it is to drop them into a workflow.   Then, there is the scale.   It does not matter if you request 1,000 cores for 8-hours or 8,000 cores for 1-hour.  You still pay the same.   So, if your application supports it, why not scale up your resources and get to results faster?

That is exactly what a recent collaborative project between AWS and Western Digital did.  First, a quick overview of the hard disk drive (HDD) market.  The HDD market is an extremely competitive one.  The ever-increasing demand for capacity from enterprises, particularly large hyper-scale data centers (like us) has been keeping Western Digital very busy.  Faced with the need to innovate to meet the growing demand for data storage capacity, the engineering teams at Western Digital are always pushing the limits of physics and engineering.  Enterprise HDDs are still confined to a 3.5 inches form factor (as they have been for years) with no chance to increase the size to accommodate additional capacity and performance requirements.  So, the only solution to meeting the increased capacity demands is to cram more bits into the same space and make sure the drives can handle the increasing demands for performance.  The technical term here is increasing the areal density of the media – meaning, keep on shrinking the geometry that you are allowed to use to capture the ones and zeros on the rotating media.  As you shrink those geometries, there are various aspects of cross talk, noise and atomic behavior that you have to comprehend to get to an ingredient combination that works 24x7x365, and can be manufactured at high volume. It is quite an art and science to get all those things to line up exactly, make it repeatable, make it manufacturable, make it operational, and, oh, by the way, get it to work for years without a failure.

A big focus of the engineering simulations work at Western Digital is to evaluate different combinations of technologies and/or solutions (or ingredients that make up the solutions) that goes into making new HDDs.  The basic design of the hard disk involves a rotating media and a head on a slider arm that moves over the media.  The engineering teams are looking at smaller and smaller geometries of recording channels on the media so they can fit more and more 1’s and 0’s or bits into the same space.  They are looking to achieve faster read and write times from that media.  The simulations thus involve many variable vectors to find the right combination of media, speed of rotation of the media, materials that constitute the media etc. that can provide that higher density and faster read-write times.   The end goal is to determine which combinations work and which don’t – and making sure those combinations that don’t work are avoided in the manufacturing process or in solutions/component recipes for the physical products.

As part of this precedent-setting collaborative work, Western Digital ran around 2.3 million simulation jobs on a Spot-based cluster of a little over one million vCPUs.   If they were to do those same 2.3 million simulations on a standard Spot based cluster of 16,000 vCPUs at a time (as they do today), it would have taken them about 20 days to get the same work done.     The idea of doing 20 days of work in 8 hours is a game changer.  The impacts go beyond the traditional business metrics – it is a great competitive advantage for a business that is driven by innovation.

So, what goes into scaling an application to run on extreme capacity infrastructure?  It is a coordinated effort between the application engineers, the infrastructure engineers, and the team at AWS.    At a 10K ft level, what we are doing here is taking a large statistical simulation, splitting it into jobs that run on a single vCPU, then when the jobs are done, bringing it all back and collating the results.   That requires work on both the application side and the infrastructure side.  The application has to ensure that the individual simulations are all done correctly, the infrastructure has to coordinate jobs across a vast number of servers/cores and bring all the data back to collate. What made this run even more interesting is that we used EC2 Spot instances, so the application had to be resilient for any job preemption or interruption that might happen. During the 8 hours run at the full one million vCPU scale, we experienced less than 1% of interruption. From an infrastructure point of view, we had to evaluate the limits that exists on number of underlying services (compute, storage, API calls) and since this was a cluster that was run all in a single region, but spanned multiple Availability Zones, we combined the features of AWS Spot Fleet with the highly-scalable cluster management and scheduling of Univa NavOps and GridEngine to coordinate cluster management across the wide capacity of our infrastructure and keep the cluster fully utilized even under such very high workload.

A few other points that are worth highlighting here.  First, Western Digital, Univa and AWS were able to fully exploit the configuration flexibility that running HPC workloads on the cloud offers.  Before embarking on this simulation, the engineers from both AWS and Western Digital spent a lot of prep time profiling the various instance types that Amazon EC2 offers. Through profiling this multitude of instance types (over 25 different instances types), we were able to land on the most optimal range of instances offering AVX acceleration for this workload, giving the AWS Spot Fleet the flexibility and freedom to find the cheapest and fastest hardware for the job.   Second, this simulation was also a major achievement in terms of the use of containers to run HPC workloads.  In this run, the entire application was ported onto containers, which is a big shift from having to haul around drivers and dependencies across jobs and VMs.   This run actually might have been one of the largest container fleets running a single application! Third, we used Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) as the storage back-end for this simulation.  Being able to support this fast rate of data access at such massive scales required no tuning effort, as S3 bandwidth scaled gracefully and peaked at 7500 PUT/s.  And last, but not the least, this was a great example of how Spot Fleet can simplify cluster management.  In this particular case, we just had three Spot Fleet requests simultaneously and we were able to hit a million cores in the cluster in around 1 hour and 32 minutes!

To learn more, visit https://aws.amazon.com/hpc or reach out to your local AWS representative.

 

Subscribe to HPCwire's Weekly Update!

Be the most informed person in the room! Stay ahead of the tech trends with industy updates delivered to you every week!

U.S. CTO Michael Kratsios Adds DoD Research & Engineering Title

July 13, 2020

Michael Kratsios, the U.S. Chief Technology Officer, has been appointed acting Undersecretary of Defense for research and engineering. He replaces Mike Griffin, who along with his deputy Lis Porter, stepped down last wee Read more…

By John Russell

Supercomputer Research Reveals Star Cluster Born Outside Our Galaxy

July 11, 2020

The Milky Way is our galactic home, containing our solar system and continuing into a giant band of densely packed stars that stretches across clear night skies around the world – but, it turns out, not all of those st Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Max Planck Society Begins Installation of Liquid-Cooled Supercomputer from Lenovo

July 9, 2020

Lenovo announced today that it is supplying a new high performance computer to the Max Planck Society, one of Germany's premier research organizations. Comprised of Intel Xeon processors and Nvidia A100 GPUs, and featuri Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Xilinx Announces First Adaptive Computing Challenge

July 9, 2020

A new contest is challenging the computing world. Xilinx has announced the first Xilinx Adaptive Computing Challenge, a competition that will task developers and startups with finding creative workload acceleration solutions. Xilinx is running the Adaptive Computing Challenge in partnership with Hackster.io, a developing community... Read more…

By Staff report

Reviving Moore’s Law? LBNL Researchers See Promise in Heterostructure Oxides

July 9, 2020

The reality of Moore’s law’s decline is no longer doubted for good empirical reasons. That said, never say never. Recent work by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory researchers suggests heterostructure oxides may b Read more…

By John Russell

AWS Solution Channel

Best Practices for Running Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Workloads on AWS

The scalable nature and variable demand of CFD workloads makes them well-suited for a cloud computing environment. Many of the AWS instance types, such as the compute family instance types, are designed to include support for this type of workload.  Read more…

Intel® HPC + AI Pavilion

Supercomputing the Pandemic: Scientific Community Tackles COVID-19 from Multiple Perspectives

Since their inception, supercomputers have taken on the biggest, most complex, and most data-intensive computing challenges—from confirming Einstein’s theories about gravitational waves to predicting the impacts of climate change. Read more…

President’s Council Targets AI, Quantum, STEM; Recommends Spending Growth

July 9, 2020

Last week the President Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) met (webinar) to review policy recommendations around three sub-committee reports: 1) Industries of the Future (IotF), chaired be Dario Gil (d Read more…

By John Russell

Max Planck Society Begins Installation of Liquid-Cooled Supercomputer from Lenovo

July 9, 2020

Lenovo announced today that it is supplying a new high performance computer to the Max Planck Society, one of Germany's premier research organizations. Comprise Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

President’s Council Targets AI, Quantum, STEM; Recommends Spending Growth

July 9, 2020

Last week the President Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) met (webinar) to review policy recommendations around three sub-committee reports: Read more…

By John Russell

Google Cloud Debuts 16-GPU Ampere A100 Instances

July 7, 2020

On the heels of the Nvidia’s Ampere A100 GPU launch in May, Google Cloud is announcing alpha availability of the A100 “Accelerator Optimized” VM A2 instance family on Google Compute Engine. The instances are powered by the HGX A100 16-GPU platform, which combines two HGX A100 8-GPU baseboards using... Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Q&A: HLRS’s Bastian Koller Tackles HPC and Industry in Germany and Europe

July 6, 2020

In this exclusive interview for HPCwire – sadly not face to face – Steve Conway, senior advisor for Hyperion Research, talks with Dr.-Ing Bastian Koller about the state of HPC and its collaboration with Industry in Europe. Koller is a familiar figure in HPC. He is the managing director at High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS) and also serves... Read more…

By Steve Conway, Hyperion

OpenPOWER Reboot – New Director, New Silicon Partners, Leveraging Linux Foundation Connections

July 2, 2020

Earlier this week the OpenPOWER Foundation announced the contribution of IBM’s A21 Power processor core design to the open source community. Roughly this time Read more…

By John Russell

Hyperion Forecast – Headwinds in 2020 Won’t Stifle Cloud HPC Adoption or Arm’s Rise

June 30, 2020

The semiannual taking of HPC’s pulse by Hyperion Research – late fall at SC and early summer at ISC – is a much-watched indicator of things come. This yea Read more…

By John Russell

Racism and HPC: a Special Podcast

June 29, 2020

Promoting greater diversity in HPC is a much-discussed goal and ostensibly a long-sought goal in HPC. Yet it seems clear HPC is far from achieving this goal. Re Read more…

Top500 Trends: Movement on Top, but Record Low Turnover

June 25, 2020

The 55th installment of the Top500 list saw strong activity in the leadership segment with four new systems in the top ten and a crowning achievement from the f Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Supercomputer Modeling Tests How COVID-19 Spreads in Grocery Stores

April 8, 2020

In the COVID-19 era, many people are treating simple activities like getting gas or groceries with caution as they try to heed social distancing mandates and protect their own health. Still, significant uncertainty surrounds the relative risk of different activities, and conflicting information is prevalent. A team of Finnish researchers set out to address some of these uncertainties by... Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

[email protected] Turns Its Massive Crowdsourced Computer Network Against COVID-19

March 16, 2020

For gamers, fighting against a global crisis is usually pure fantasy – but now, it’s looking more like a reality. As supercomputers around the world spin up Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

[email protected] Rallies a Legion of Computers Against the Coronavirus

March 24, 2020

Last week, we highlighted [email protected], a massive, crowdsourced computer network that has turned its resources against the coronavirus pandemic sweeping the globe – but [email protected] isn’t the only game in town. The internet is buzzing with crowdsourced computing... Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Supercomputer Simulations Reveal the Fate of the Neanderthals

May 25, 2020

For hundreds of thousands of years, neanderthals roamed the planet, eventually (almost 50,000 years ago) giving way to homo sapiens, which quickly became the do Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

DoE Expands on Role of COVID-19 Supercomputing Consortium

March 25, 2020

After announcing the launch of the COVID-19 High Performance Computing Consortium on Sunday, the Department of Energy yesterday provided more details on its sco Read more…

By John Russell

Neocortex Will Be First-of-Its-Kind 800,000-Core AI Supercomputer

June 9, 2020

Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC - a joint research organization of Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh) has won a $5 million award Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Honeywell’s Big Bet on Trapped Ion Quantum Computing

April 7, 2020

Honeywell doesn’t spring to mind when thinking of quantum computing pioneers, but a decade ago the high-tech conglomerate better known for its control systems waded deliberately into the then calmer quantum computing (QC) waters. Fast forward to March when Honeywell announced plans to introduce an ion trap-based quantum computer whose ‘performance’ would... Read more…

By John Russell

10nm, 7nm, 5nm…. Should the Chip Nanometer Metric Be Replaced?

June 1, 2020

The biggest cool factor in server chips is the nanometer. AMD beating Intel to a CPU built on a 7nm process node* – with 5nm and 3nm on the way – has been i Read more…

By Doug Black

Leading Solution Providers

Contributors

Nvidia’s Ampere A100 GPU: Up to 2.5X the HPC, 20X the AI

May 14, 2020

Nvidia's first Ampere-based graphics card, the A100 GPU, packs a whopping 54 billion transistors on 826mm2 of silicon, making it the world's largest seven-nanom Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

‘Billion Molecules Against COVID-19’ Challenge to Launch with Massive Supercomputing Support

April 22, 2020

Around the world, supercomputing centers have spun up and opened their doors for COVID-19 research in what may be the most unified supercomputing effort in hist Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Australian Researchers Break All-Time Internet Speed Record

May 26, 2020

If you’ve been stuck at home for the last few months, you’ve probably become more attuned to the quality (or lack thereof) of your internet connection. Even Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

15 Slides on Programming Aurora and Exascale Systems

May 7, 2020

Sometime in 2021, Aurora, the first planned U.S. exascale system, is scheduled to be fired up at Argonne National Laboratory. Cray (now HPE) and Intel are the k Read more…

By John Russell

Summit Supercomputer is Already Making its Mark on Science

September 20, 2018

Summit, now the fastest supercomputer in the world, is quickly making its mark in science – five of the six finalists just announced for the prestigious 2018 Read more…

By John Russell

TACC Supercomputers Run Simulations Illuminating COVID-19, DNA Replication

March 19, 2020

As supercomputers around the world spin up to combat the coronavirus, the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) is announcing results that may help to illumina Read more…

By Staff report

$100B Plan Submitted for Massive Remake and Expansion of NSF

May 27, 2020

Legislation to reshape, expand - and rename - the National Science Foundation has been submitted in both the U.S. House and Senate. The proposal, which seems to Read more…

By John Russell

John Martinis Reportedly Leaves Google Quantum Effort

April 21, 2020

John Martinis, who led Google’s quantum computing effort since establishing its quantum hardware group in 2014, has left Google after being moved into an advi Read more…

By John Russell

  • arrow
  • Click Here for More Headlines
  • arrow
Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!
Share This