AI Hardware Summit: Panel on Memory Looks Forward

By John Russell

September 15, 2021

What will system memory look like in five years? Good question. While Monday’s panel, Designing AI Super-Chips at the Speed of Memory, at the AI Hardware Summit, tackled several topics, the panelists also took a brief glimpse into the future. Unlike compute, storage and networking, which have all steadily gained software-defined capabilities, memory has remained tightly coupled to compute.

That will change said the group as the era of heterogeneous memory takes hold. One of the most concrete views came from panelist Charles Fan, founder and CEO of MemVerge.

“If we look at five years into the future we might see the true disaggregation between compute and memory [that] allows each to scale independently and the whole infrastructure becomes software composible. For any workload, I could decide how many cores I need, how much memory, how much storage, how much networking, and assemble a computer to run this workflow,” said Fan.

Yes, Fan has a horse in the race; MemVerge’s virtualized memory management is a key enabler of software-defined memory infrastructure. But it’s also true that the growing complexity of computer systems overall, including memory options, has driven a broad effort to expand software-defined capabilities as a way to more efficiently manage diverse resources for particular workflows.

The software-defined view of system architecture is hardly new, but the wrangling of memory into it is. Key enablers such as appropriate interconnect technology, less expensive but higher-performing memory, and virtualized memory management software have only recently begun appearing. All of yesterday’s panelists – Fan of MemVerge, Steve Scargall of Intel, and Brandon Wang of Synopsys – expect significant changes in the memory technologies being deployed and in the way memory is incorporated into systems. Frank Barry of MemVerge was the moderator.

The lone memory consumer on the Panel was asked how on-chip memory might change, and specifically about using MRAM in place of SRAM. “Great question,” said Wang. “Embedded memory has one major constraint not just because of the size, but also because of the process. It has to be compatible with the rest of the chip in the particular logic process used. So 6T SRAM has been and still is being used as the major embedded memory. You can’t really put in innovation of a new memory and quickly integrate into the chip seamlessly.”

“That’s why we need to look at the new innovations like MRAM on chip, but also we need to look at off chip. We say near chip, some hardware structure that you put together to leverage on chip and off chip memory in a virtual layer so that the end-user doesn’t have to distinguish the difference,” he said.

The 2021 AI Hardware Summit is a hybrid in-person plus virtual attendance event running all week in Mountain View, Calif. Panelists pre-recorded the session but took questions in real-time from a chat app. Not surprisingly much of the conversation was on participant companies’ products. Both products discussed, Intel’s Optane and MemVerge’s memory machine virtualization platforms are still young.

Intel’s High Hopes for Optane

Scargall, Optane technical specialist, made the case for Intel Optane persistent memory which has been in the market since 2019. Less expensive but also slower than DRAM, non-volatile Optane technology is much faster than traditional storage (NAND SSD/HDD/tape). It’s positioned between system memory and storage. Micron, of course, was a co-developer of the technology (3D XPoint) but exited the market last spring, a move that raised some questions about the strength of the market.

Figure 1: Intel Optane devices can be added at many locations in the HPC storage memory hierarchy

“We’re in the second generation now with the third generation expected next year. Looking at capacities of the first two generations, we offer the 128-, 256-, and 512-gig modules. The current generation of product comes in form factors where it looks like a DDR DIMM, just has a big heat spreader on there. So they install into the same DIMM slots alongside the DDR [and] we support numerous combinations of DDR and persistent memory. That gives the flexibility for not only matching the capacity that you need for both DRAM and PMEM [Persistent Memory],” said Scargall.

The first generation of Optane used with Intel’s Cascade Lake Xeon CPUs supported up to 4.5 terabytes of memory. “That’s DRAM and PMEM, combined, per socket,” said Scargall. “Intel Ice Lake CPUs that are out this year, support up to six terabytes of memory per socket. As you add more sockets, you add more memory and can scale linearly with your requirements.”

Talking about EDA chip design and overcoming the so-called memory wall (disparity of speed between CPU and memory outside the CPU chip), Scargall said “The efficiency of the chip design itself can be improved by having these bigger memory systems and more tiers of memory. This opens up new opportunities that aren’t available with existing traditional design. More memory allows the designers and engineers to be more efficient, either creating these bigger models, or being able to load multiple models at the same time, and then switch between them without having to close the file they are working on.”

Talking about Optane’s expected market traction, Scargall cited report by Coughlin Associates (Emerging Memories Take Off) which forecast that PMEM would ship more capacity than DRAM by 2028 and that in the 2030-2031 timeframe Optane will have penetrate 50 percent of all servers. Those seem, perhaps, optimistic given how hard forecasting has been of late.

Scargall said, “It’s looking more and more like DRAM is going to become a new, last level cache versus the predominant data tier.”

MemVerge and the Memory Machine

MemVerge, of course, is also betting big on Optane. The MemVerge software platform “virtualizes DRAM and Persistent Memory so that data can be accessed, tiered, scaled, and protected in-memory.” The Memory Machine is the virtualization engine and is an early version of software-defined memory management, in this case PMEM and DRAM. Once DRAM and PMEM are virtualized, the PMEM appears as DRAM allowing any application to plug-and-play with the pool of memory.

The first product was released in 2017 and won HPCwire Readers’ and Editors’ Choices Awards in 2020 for Top Five New Products or Technologies to Watch. A key functionality highlighted by Fan was MemVerge’s in-memory snapshot capability.

Charles Fan, CEO, MemVerge

“What it allows the chip designer to do is to take an in-memory snapshot of their running EDA processes, whether you’re doing simulation, optimization, or verification, and these tend to be long running jobs. Traditionally, you would like to checkpoint them to storage so that if there’s any reason you need to rollback or if your system went offline or crashed, you can restart your simulation not from the beginning – which could take days or even weeks – but restart from that checkpoint.”

But checkpointing is becoming more time-consuming as memories become bigger. Copying that amount of state data to storage can take many minutes and must be done every hour or so. “By taking in memory snapshots, we could take checkpointing [data], write it to memory, and have it persist on Optane memory without moving it to storage,” Fan said, adding this can cut the checkpointing time from three weeks to two.

The in-memory snapshot capability also facilitates bursting jobs to the cloud or moving jobs within a cloud or from one cloud to another. “The reason is many of these applications are stateful applications, and using our snapshot technology as a foundation, we can create an application encapsulation, to capture, at a point in time, everything needed for this stateful application to be restarted anywhere, anytime,” Fan said.

Currently there are limits to the cloud-hopping feature. “This use case is what we are still working on. From a technical perspective, there are some considerations. One is today, if you’re moving a snapshot, from one cloud instance to another, either in the same cloud service provider or to a different cloud service provider, we do require the [transfer] to be Intel to Intel or AMD to AMD. We do not support across CPU vendors yet on those movements. Secondly, the resources on the destination needs to be at least as big as other source. So, for, example, if you have 128 gigabytes of memory on the instance you’re moving from, your destination cannot have 64 gigabytes of memory.”

Synopsys Tackles Memory and Compute Challenges

Wang recalled that when Synopsys started in 1986 with what was then called a design compiler, transistor counts per chip were tiny compared today. Well below a million per chip. Today Nvidia’s A100 GPU has 54 billion transistors and Cerebras Systems offers a wafer device with more than 2.6 trillion transistors fabbed on TSMC’s 7nm process. How times have changed.

Currently, the system-on-a-chip (SOC) is the prevailing approach, and designers typically seek tradeoffs among three criteria, said Wang. Those are quality of result (QoR), cost of result (CoR), and time to market (TTM). Meeting these criteria and dealing with chip complexity requires heavy use of simulation, modeling, verification, and optimization, he said.

The memory wall is the biggest challenge in handling today’s larger, complex designs he said, “The bandwidth or throughput of this IO interface really becomes a choke point in designing a very large chip.”

Newer AI-slanted chips have presented another challenge, said Wang. “Basically, AI brought back the topic of software-defined hardware, because there’s no single generic AI architecture, unlike CPUs, GPUs, and memories. What that really means is that you need to personalize a chip design in the same short duration that people demand when you’re doing a standard product.”

It’s turned out that bursting to the cloud when internal resources are constrained and leveraging the flexibility of resources available in the cloud have been extremely valuable in chip design, said Wang. He was asked what AI chip design will look like in five years

Marveling at the size of current chips being fabbed on 7nm processes, Wang said, “We expect [transistor counts] to be doubled in 5nm or 3nm moving forward. Besides that, AI is also looking at heterogeneous integration because different modules could be made in different process nodes and integrated in a single package. [You’ll be] dealing with even more massive data [and] they could be even in different formats. We’ll see the complexity of those designs going up. Also, people are looking for more customized solutions to do exactly what the application is asking for instead of running in a generic machine.”

Subscribe to HPCwire's Weekly Update!

Be the most informed person in the room! Stay ahead of the tech trends with industy updates delivered to you every week!

Supercomputer Analysis Shows the Atmospheric Reach of the Tonga Eruption

January 21, 2022

On Saturday, an enormous eruption on the volcanic islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Haʻapai shook the Pacific Ocean. The explosion, which could be heard six thousand miles away in Alaska, caused tsunamis across the entir Read more…

NSB Issues US State of Science and Engineering 2022 Report

January 20, 2022

This week the National Science Board released its biannual U.S. State of Science and Engineering 2022 report, as required by the NSF Act. Broadly, the report presents a near-term view of S&E based mostly on 2019 data. To a large extent, this year’s edition echoes trends from the last few reports. The U.S. is still a world leader in R&D spending and S&E education... Read more…

Researchers Achieve 99 Percent Quantum Accuracy with Silicon-Embedded Qubits 

January 20, 2022

Researchers in Australia and the U.S. have made exciting headway in the quantum computing arms race. A multi-institutional team including the University of New South Wales and Sandia National Laboratory announced that th Read more…

Trio of Supercomputers Powers Estimate of Carbon in Earth’s Outer Core

January 20, 2022

Carbon is one of the essential building blocks of life on Earth, and it—along with hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen—is one of the key elements researchers look for when they search for habitable planets and work to unde Read more…

Multiverse Targets ‘Quantum Computing for the Masses’

January 19, 2022

The race to deliver quantum computing solutions that shield users from the underlying complexity of quantum computing is heating up quickly. One example is Multiverse Computing, a European company, which today launched the second financial services product in its Singularity product group. The new offering, Fair Price, “delivers a higher accuracy in fair price calculations for financial... Read more…

AWS Solution Channel

shutterstock 718231072

Accelerating drug discovery with Amazon EC2 Spot Instances

This post was contributed by Cristian Măgherușan-Stanciu, Sr. Specialist Solution Architect, EC2 Spot, with contributions from Cristian Kniep, Sr. Developer Advocate for HPC and AWS Batch at AWS, Carlos Manzanedo Rueda, Principal Solutions Architect, EC2 Spot at AWS, Ludvig Nordstrom, Principal Solutions Architect at AWS, Vytautas Gapsys, project group leader at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, and Carsten Kutzner, staff scientist at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry. Read more…

Students at SC21: Out in Front, Alongside and Behind the Scenes

January 19, 2022

The Supercomputing Conference (SC) is one of the biggest international conferences dedicated to high-performance computing, networking, storage and analysis. SC21 was a true ‘hybrid’ conference, with a total of 380 o Read more…

Supercomputer Analysis Shows the Atmospheric Reach of the Tonga Eruption

January 21, 2022

On Saturday, an enormous eruption on the volcanic islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Haʻapai shook the Pacific Ocean. The explosion, which could be heard six tho Read more…

NSB Issues US State of Science and Engineering 2022 Report

January 20, 2022

This week the National Science Board released its biannual U.S. State of Science and Engineering 2022 report, as required by the NSF Act. Broadly, the report presents a near-term view of S&E based mostly on 2019 data. To a large extent, this year’s edition echoes trends from the last few reports. The U.S. is still a world leader in R&D spending and S&E education... Read more…

Multiverse Targets ‘Quantum Computing for the Masses’

January 19, 2022

The race to deliver quantum computing solutions that shield users from the underlying complexity of quantum computing is heating up quickly. One example is Multiverse Computing, a European company, which today launched the second financial services product in its Singularity product group. The new offering, Fair Price, “delivers a higher accuracy in fair price calculations for financial... Read more…

Students at SC21: Out in Front, Alongside and Behind the Scenes

January 19, 2022

The Supercomputing Conference (SC) is one of the biggest international conferences dedicated to high-performance computing, networking, storage and analysis. SC Read more…

Q-Ctrl – Tackling Quantum Hardware’s Noise Problems with Software

January 13, 2022

Implementing effective error mitigation and correction is a critical next step in advancing quantum computing. While a lot of attention has been given to effort Read more…

Nvidia Defends Arm Acquisition Deal: a ‘Once-in-a-Generation Opportunity’

January 13, 2022

GPU-maker Nvidia is continuing to try to keep its proposed acquisition of British chip IP vendor Arm Ltd. alive, despite continuing concerns from several governments around the world. In its latest action, Nvidia filed a 29-page response to the U.K. government to point out a list of potential benefits of the proposed $40 billion deal. Read more…

Nvidia Buys HPC Cluster Management Company Bright Computing

January 10, 2022

Graphics chip powerhouse Nvidia today announced that it has acquired HPC cluster management company Bright Computing for an undisclosed sum. Unlike Nvidia’s bid to purchase semiconductor IP company Arm, which has been stymied by regulatory challenges, the Bright deal is a straightforward acquisition that aims to expand... Read more…

SC21 Panel on Programming Models – Tackling Data Movement, DSLs, More

January 6, 2022

How will programming future systems differ from current practice? This is an ever-present question in computing. Yet it has, perhaps, never been more pressing g Read more…

IonQ Is First Quantum Startup to Go Public; Will It be First to Deliver Profits?

November 3, 2021

On October 1 of this year, IonQ became the first pure-play quantum computing start-up to go public. At this writing, the stock (NYSE: IONQ) was around $15 and its market capitalization was roughly $2.89 billion. Co-founder and chief scientist Chris Monroe says it was fun to have a few of the company’s roughly 100 employees travel to New York to ring the opening bell of the New York Stock... Read more…

US Closes in on Exascale: Frontier Installation Is Underway

September 29, 2021

At the Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) meeting, held by Zoom this week (Sept. 29-30), it was revealed that the Frontier supercomputer is currently being installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tenn. The staff at the Oak Ridge Leadership... Read more…

AMD Launches Milan-X CPU with 3D V-Cache and Multichip Instinct MI200 GPU

November 8, 2021

At a virtual event this morning, AMD CEO Lisa Su unveiled the company’s latest and much-anticipated server products: the new Milan-X CPU, which leverages AMD’s new 3D V-Cache technology; and its new Instinct MI200 GPU, which provides up to 220 compute units across two Infinity Fabric-connected dies, delivering an astounding 47.9 peak double-precision teraflops. “We're in a high-performance computing megacycle, driven by the growing need to deploy additional compute performance... Read more…

Intel Reorgs HPC Group, Creates Two ‘Super Compute’ Groups

October 15, 2021

Following on changes made in June that moved Intel’s HPC unit out of the Data Platform Group and into the newly created Accelerated Computing Systems and Graphics (AXG) business unit, led by Raja Koduri, Intel is making further updates to the HPC group and announcing... Read more…

Nvidia Buys HPC Cluster Management Company Bright Computing

January 10, 2022

Graphics chip powerhouse Nvidia today announced that it has acquired HPC cluster management company Bright Computing for an undisclosed sum. Unlike Nvidia’s bid to purchase semiconductor IP company Arm, which has been stymied by regulatory challenges, the Bright deal is a straightforward acquisition that aims to expand... Read more…

D-Wave Embraces Gate-Based Quantum Computing; Charts Path Forward

October 21, 2021

Earlier this month D-Wave Systems, the quantum computing pioneer that has long championed quantum annealing-based quantum computing (and sometimes taken heat fo Read more…

Killer Instinct: AMD’s Multi-Chip MI200 GPU Readies for a Major Global Debut

October 21, 2021

AMD’s next-generation supercomputer GPU is on its way – and by all appearances, it’s about to make a name for itself. The AMD Radeon Instinct MI200 GPU (a successor to the MI100) will, over the next year, begin to power three massive systems on three continents: the United States’ exascale Frontier system; the European Union’s pre-exascale LUMI system; and Australia’s petascale Setonix system. Read more…

Three Chinese Exascale Systems Detailed at SC21: Two Operational and One Delayed

November 24, 2021

Details about two previously rumored Chinese exascale systems came to light during last week’s SC21 proceedings. Asked about these systems during the Top500 media briefing on Monday, Nov. 15, list author and co-founder Jack Dongarra indicated he was aware of some very impressive results, but withheld comment when asked directly if he had... Read more…

Leading Solution Providers

Contributors

Lessons from LLVM: An SC21 Fireside Chat with Chris Lattner

December 27, 2021

Today, the LLVM compiler infrastructure world is essentially inescapable in HPC. But back in the 2000 timeframe, LLVM (low level virtual machine) was just getting its start as a new way of thinking about how to overcome shortcomings in the Java Virtual Machine. At the time, Chris Lattner was a graduate student of... Read more…

2021 Gordon Bell Prize Goes to Exascale-Powered Quantum Supremacy Challenge

November 18, 2021

Today at the hybrid virtual/in-person SC21 conference, the organizers announced the winners of the 2021 ACM Gordon Bell Prize: a team of Chinese researchers leveraging the new exascale Sunway system to simulate quantum circuits. The Gordon Bell Prize, which comes with an award of $10,000 courtesy of HPC pioneer Gordon Bell, is awarded annually... Read more…

Julia Update: Adoption Keeps Climbing; Is It a Python Challenger?

January 13, 2021

The rapid adoption of Julia, the open source, high level programing language with roots at MIT, shows no sign of slowing according to data from Julialang.org. I Read more…

Top500: No Exascale, Fugaku Still Reigns, Polaris Debuts at #12

November 15, 2021

No exascale for you* -- at least, not within the High-Performance Linpack (HPL) territory of the latest Top500 list, issued today from the 33rd annual Supercomputing Conference (SC21), held in-person in St. Louis, Mo., and virtually, from Nov. 14–19. "We were hoping to have the first exascale system on this list but that didn’t happen," said Top500 co-author... Read more…

Nvidia Defends Arm Acquisition Deal: a ‘Once-in-a-Generation Opportunity’

January 13, 2022

GPU-maker Nvidia is continuing to try to keep its proposed acquisition of British chip IP vendor Arm Ltd. alive, despite continuing concerns from several governments around the world. In its latest action, Nvidia filed a 29-page response to the U.K. government to point out a list of potential benefits of the proposed $40 billion deal. Read more…

TACC Unveils Lonestar6 Supercomputer

November 1, 2021

The Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) is unveiling its latest supercomputer: Lonestar6, a three peak petaflops Dell system aimed at supporting researchers Read more…

10nm, 7nm, 5nm…. Should the Chip Nanometer Metric Be Replaced?

June 1, 2020

The biggest cool factor in server chips is the nanometer. AMD beating Intel to a CPU built on a 7nm process node* – with 5nm and 3nm on the way – has been i Read more…

Intel Launches 10nm ‘Ice Lake’ Datacenter CPU with Up to 40 Cores

April 6, 2021

The wait is over. Today Intel officially launched its 10nm datacenter CPU, the third-generation Intel Xeon Scalable processor, codenamed Ice Lake. With up to 40 Read more…

  • arrow
  • Click Here for More Headlines
  • arrow
HPCwire