Nvidia Shares Grace Superchip Benchmarks

By Doug Eadline

September 6, 2023

Every vendor releases benchmarks when introducing a new processor. There are lots of application-based benchmarks available for HPC, and to be sure, vendors will only release results where their product wins in the benchmarks (or mostly wins). Nvidia has released some initial benchmarks for their Grace CPU Superchip. Of course, the normal proviso applies, “take vendor benchmarks with a grain of salt,” but these initial numbers are helpful and provide some background on what we can expect from the new HPC processor.

Grace provides 72 Arm Neoverse V2 cores in a single die and is fabricated on TSMC’s 4N process node (an Nvidia-specific node). The peak performance is reported as 7.1 TFLOPs for FP64 computations. Grace is actually designed to be used in tandem with a second Grace CPU (or Hopper GPU). The two CPUs are connected over a 900 GB/s bidirectional NVLink-C2C to deliver all 144 high-performance Arm Neoverse V2 cores with up to 1 TB/s bandwidth of ECC memory. Within each Neoverse processor, Nvidia provides a Scalable Coherency Fabric (SCF) that provides a coherent and distributed cache that provides over 3.2 TB/s of total bisection bandwidth supporting local CPU cores, the NVLink-C2C, local memory, and system IO.

According to Nvidia, the Grace Superchip is in production, and OEM systems will probably be available in 2H24. This is why Nvidia released some initial benchmarks, see Figure One, to support the processor release. The benchmarks included Weather ( WRF), Molecular Dynamics (CP2K), Climate (NEMO), CFD (OpenFoam) and Graph Analytics (GapBS BFS). An AMD Genoa (2-socket Epyc 9654 with 192-cores total) and an Intel Xeon (Sapphire Rapids 8480+ with 112 cores total) were used for comparison. Note, regarding cores, the Genoa leads with 192, Superchip with 144, and Xeon with 112. On a strictly “more cores” basis, the 2-socket Genoa processors with 33% more cores should have run away with the benchmarks (memory Bandwidth not withstanding). This expectation was not the case, however. With all but one benchmark (Graph Analytics), the Genoa and Superchip maintained parity. Intel, with about 30% fewer cores, would be expected to bring up the rear.

Nvidia Grace Benchmarks
Figure One: Nvidia Grace Benchmarks (Source Nvidia)

The Graph Analytic benchmark is curious, not because the Superchip did so well, but because it does not quite fit into a mainstream HPC benchmark suite. It does show a case where the Superchip was 40% faster than the Genoa with 33% more cores. If these performance tests are independently reproduced with similar results, then the Arm Superchip outperforms the x86_64 family of processors on a core-for-core basis. The memory fabric on the Superchip probably has a lot to do with the benchmark performance.

The right-hand side of the graph is more interesting. When the processors are normalized by power consumption, the Superchip wins everything — the Graph Analytics by a whopping 250%.

We could not find any details for the 5MW Data Center projection benchmark. The “projection benchmark” phrasing is a little strange and suggests some real-world wall-outlet tests may be needed. Looking at the vendor-published power numbers does support these results, however.

  • Dual Nvidia Grace Superchip: 500W
  • Dual AMD EPYC 9654: 720W
  • Dual Intel Xeon 8480+: 700W

Note: Power ratings for most processors are reported as TDP (Thermal Design Power), but each vendor defines TDP differently, and the actual electrical power use can often be much higher. A good rule of thumb is the actual electrical power draw (in Watts) can be as high as 1.5 times the stated TDP wattage specification.

For now, we will consider the TDP measurements roughly equivalent and give Nvidia credit for a power-efficient processor (compared to x86_64 options). For a complete measure of power, the entire server needs to be taken into account, which is why the best measurement is the Kill-O-Watt  wall outlet test.

If the benchmarks hold up and are supplemented with other independent tests, the Nvidia Grace CPU should be a serious contender for high throughput computing. The still undetermined aspect of the Superchip will be price. The commodity market does provide an advantage to the x86_64 market. Still, the dual-purpose architecture of the Grace CPU (either coupled with another Grace CPU or with a Hopper GPU) may make the economical work for large customers.

Finally, and probably not visible in Figure One above, the copyright is listed as Arm, not Nvidia. 

 

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