ALCF, NCSA Supercomputers Generate Movies of the Universe

August 28, 2017

ARGONNE, Ill., Aug. 28, 2017 — If you have ever had to wait those agonizing minutes in front of a computer for a movie or large file to load, you’ll likely sympathize with the plight of cosmologists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory. But instead of watching TV dramas, they are trying to transfer, as fast and as accurately as possible, the huge amounts of data that make up movies of the universe – computationally demanding and highly intricate simulations of how our cosmos evolved after the Big Bang.

In a new approach to enable scientific breakthroughs, researchers linked together supercomputers at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) and at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UI). This link enabled scientists to transfer massive amounts of data and to run two different types of demanding computations in a coordinated fashion – referred to technically as a workflow.

What distinguishes the new work from typical workflows is the scale of the computation, the associated data generation and transfer and the scale and complexity of the final analysis. Researchers also tapped the unique capabilities of each supercomputer: They performed cosmological simulations on the ALCF’s Mira supercomputer, and then sent huge quantities of data to UI’s Blue Waters, which is better suited to perform the required data analysis tasks because of its processing power and memory balance.

For cosmology, observations of the sky and computational simulations go hand in hand, as each informs the other. Cosmological surveys are becoming ever more complex as telescopes reach deeper into space and time, mapping out the distributions of galaxies at farther and farther distances, at earlier epochs of the evolution of the universe.

The very nature of cosmology precludes carrying out controlled lab experiments, so scientists rely instead on simulations to provide a unique way to create a virtual cosmological laboratory. “The simulations that we run are a backbone for the different kinds of science that can be done experimentally, such as the large-scale experiments at different telescope facilities around the world,” said Argonne cosmologist Katrin Heitmann. “We talk about building the ‘universe in the lab,’ and simulations are a huge component of that.”

Not just any computer is up to the immense challenge of generating and dealing with datasets that can exceed many petabytes a day, according to Heitmann. “You really need high-performance supercomputers that are capable of not only capturing the dynamics of trillions of different particles, but also doing exhaustive analysis on the simulated data,” she said. “And sometimes, it’s advantageous to run the simulation and do the analysis on different machines.”

Typically, cosmological simulations can only output a fraction of the frames of the computational movie as it is running because of data storage restrictions. In this case, Argonne sent every data frame to NCSA as soon it was generated, allowing Heitmann and her team to greatly reduce the storage demands on the ALCF file system. “You want to keep as much data around as possible,” Heitmann said. “In order to do that, you need a whole computational ecosystem to come together: the fast data transfer, having a good place to ultimately store that data and being able to automate the whole process.”

In particular, Argonne transferred the data produced immediately to Blue Waters for analysis. The first challenge was to set up the transfer to sustain the bandwidth of one petabyte per day.

Once Blue Waters performed the first pass of data analysis, it reduced the raw data – with high fidelity – into a manageable size. At that point, researchers sent the data to a distributed repository at Argonne, the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Cosmologists can access and further analyze the data through a system built by researchers in Argonne’s Mathematics and Computer Science Division in collaboration with Argonne’s High Energy Physics Division.

Argonne and University of Illinois built one such central repository on the Supercomputing ’16 conference exhibition floor in November 2016, with memory units supplied by DDN Storage. The data moved over 1,400 miles to the conference’s SciNet network. The link between the computers used high-speed networking through the Department of Energy’s Energy Science Network (ESnet). Researchers sought, in part, to take full advantage of the fast SciNET infrastructure to do real science; typically it is used for demonstrations of technology rather than solving real scientific problems.

“External data movement at high speeds significantly impacts a supercomputer’s performance,” said Brandon George, systems engineer at DDN Storage. “Our solution addresses that issue by building a self-contained data transfer node with its own high-performance storage that takes in a supercomputer’s results and the responsibility for subsequent data transfers of said results, leaving supercomputer resources free to do their work more efficiently.”

The full experiment ran successfully for 24 hours without interruption and led to a valuable new cosmological data set that Heitmann and other researchers started to analyze on the SC16 show floor.

Argonne senior computer scientist Franck Cappello, who led the effort, likened the software workflow that the team developed to accomplish these goals to an orchestra. In this “orchestra,” Cappello said, the software connects individual sections, or computational resources, to make a richer, more complex sound.

He added that his collaborators hope to improve the performance of the software to make the production and analysis of extreme-scale scientific data more accessible. “The SWIFT workflow environment and the Globus file transfer service were critical technologies to provide the effective and reliable orchestration and the communication performance that were required by the experiment,” Cappello said.

“The idea is to have data centers like we have for the commercial cloud. They will hold scientific data and will allow many more people to access and analyze this data, and develop a better understanding of what they’re investigating,” said Cappello, who also holds an affiliate position at NCSA and serves as director of the international Joint Laboratory on Extreme Scale Computing, based in Illinois. “In this case, the focus was cosmology and the universe. But this approach can aid scientists in other fields in reaching their data just as well.”

Argonne computer scientist Rajkumar Kettimuthu and David Wheeler, lead network engineer at NCSA, were instrumental in establishing the configuration that actually reached this performance. Maxine Brown from University of Illinois provided the Sage environment to display the analysis result at extreme resolution. Justin Wozniak from Argonne developed the whole workflow environment using SWIFT to orchestrate and perform all operations.

The Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, the Energy Science Network and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center are DOE Office of Science User Facilities. Blue Waters is the largest leadership-class supercomputer funded by the National Science Foundation. Part of this work was funded by DOE’s Office of Science.

The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign provides supercomputing and advanced digital resources for the nation’s science enterprise. At NCSA, University of Illinois faculty, staff, students, and collaborators from around the globe use advanced digital resources to address research grand challenges for the benefit of science and society. NCSA has been advancing one third of the Fortune 50 for more than 30 years by bringing industry, researchers, and students together to solve grand challenges at rapid speed and scale.

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2016, its budget is $7.5 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 colleges, universities and other institutions. Each year, NSF receives more than 48,000 competitive proposals for funding and makes about 12,000 new funding awards. NSF also awards about $626 million in professional and service contracts yearly.

Argonne National Laboratory seeks solutions to pressing national problems in science and technology. The nation’s first national laboratory, Argonne conducts leading-edge basic and applied scientific research in virtually every scientific discipline. Argonne researchers work closely with researchers from hundreds of companies, universities, and federal, state and municipal agencies to help them solve their specific problems, advance America’s scientific leadership and prepare the nation for a better future. With employees from more than 60 nations, Argonne is managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science.

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, visit the Office of Science website.


Source: Jared Sagoff and Austin Keating, Argonne National Laboratory

Subscribe to HPCwire's Weekly Update!

Be the most informed person in the room! Stay ahead of the tech trends with industy updates delivered to you every week!

Intel Speeds NAMD by 1.8x: Saves Xeon Processor Users Millions of Compute Hours

August 12, 2020

Potentially saving datacenters millions of CPU node hours, Intel and the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (UIUC) have collaborated to develop AVX-512 optimizations for the NAMD scalable molecular dynamics cod Read more…

By Rob Farber

Intel’s Optane/DAOS Solution Tops Latest IO500

August 11, 2020

Intel’s persistent memory technology, Optane, and its DAOS (Distributed Asynchronous Object Storage) stack continue to impress and gain market traction. Yesterday, Intel reported an Optane and DAOS-based system finishe Read more…

By John Russell

Summit Now Offers Virtual Tours

August 10, 2020

Summit, the second most powerful publicly ranked supercomputer in the world, now has a virtual tour. The tour, implemented by 3D platform Matterport, allows users to virtually “walk” around the massive supercomputer Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Supercomputer Simulations Examine Changes in Chesapeake Bay

August 8, 2020

The Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the continental United States, weaves its way south from Maryland, collecting waters from West Virginia, Delaware, DC, Pennsylvania and New York along the way. Like many major e Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Student Success from ‘Scratch’: CHPC’s Proof is in the Pudding

August 7, 2020

Happy Sithole, who directs the South African Centre for High Performance Computing (SA-CHPC), called the 13th annual CHPC National conference to order on December 1, 2019, at the Birchwood Conference Centre in Kempton Pa Read more…

By Elizabeth Leake

AWS Solution Channel

University of Adelaide Provides Seamless Bioinformatics Training Using AWS

The University of Adelaide, established in South Australia in 1874, maintains a rich history of scientific innovation. For more than 140 years, the institution and its researchers have had an impact all over the world—making vital contributions to the invention of X-ray crystallography, insulin, penicillin, and the Olympic torch. Read more…

Intel® HPC + AI Pavilion

Supercomputing the Pandemic: Scientific Community Tackles COVID-19 from Multiple Perspectives

Since their inception, supercomputers have taken on the biggest, most complex, and most data-intensive computing challenges—from confirming Einstein’s theories about gravitational waves to predicting the impacts of climate change. Read more…

New GE Simulations on Summit to Advance Offshore Wind Power

August 6, 2020

The wind energy sector is a frequent user of high-power simulations, with researchers aiming to optimize wind flows and energy production from the massive turbines. Now, researchers at GE are preparing to undertake a lar Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Intel’s Optane/DAOS Solution Tops Latest IO500

August 11, 2020

Intel’s persistent memory technology, Optane, and its DAOS (Distributed Asynchronous Object Storage) stack continue to impress and gain market traction. Yeste Read more…

By John Russell

Summit Now Offers Virtual Tours

August 10, 2020

Summit, the second most powerful publicly ranked supercomputer in the world, now has a virtual tour. The tour, implemented by 3D platform Matterport, allows use Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Research: A Survey of Numerical Methods Utilizing Mixed Precision Arithmetic

August 5, 2020

Within the past years, hardware vendors have started designing low precision special function units in response to the demand of the machine learning community Read more…

By Hartwig Anzt and Jack Dongarra

Implement Photonic Tensor Cores for Machine Learning?

August 5, 2020

Researchers from George Washington University have reported an approach for building photonic tensor cores that leverages phase change photonic memory to implem Read more…

By John Russell

HPE Keeps Cray Brand Promise, Reveals HPE Cray Supercomputing Line

August 4, 2020

The HPC community, ever-affectionate toward Cray and its eponymous founder, can breathe a (virtual) sigh of relief. The Cray brand will live on, encompassing th Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Machines, Connections, Data, and Especially People: OAC Acting Director Amy Friedlander Charts Office’s Blueprint for Innovation

August 3, 2020

The path to innovation in cyberinfrastructure (CI) will require continued focus on building HPC systems and secure connections between them, in addition to the Read more…

By Ken Chiacchia, Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center/XSEDE

Nvidia Said to Be Close on Arm Deal

August 3, 2020

GPU leader Nvidia Corp. is in talks to buy U.K. chip designer Arm from parent company Softbank, according to several reports over the weekend. If consummated Read more…

By George Leopold

Intel’s 7nm Slip Raises Questions About Ponte Vecchio GPU, Aurora Supercomputer

July 30, 2020

During its second-quarter earnings call, Intel announced a one-year delay of its 7nm process technology, which it says it will create an approximate six-month shift for its CPU product timing relative to prior expectations. The primary issue is a defect mode in the 7nm process that resulted in yield degradation... Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Supercomputer Modeling Tests How COVID-19 Spreads in Grocery Stores

April 8, 2020

In the COVID-19 era, many people are treating simple activities like getting gas or groceries with caution as they try to heed social distancing mandates and protect their own health. Still, significant uncertainty surrounds the relative risk of different activities, and conflicting information is prevalent. A team of Finnish researchers set out to address some of these uncertainties by... Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Supercomputer-Powered Research Uncovers Signs of ‘Bradykinin Storm’ That May Explain COVID-19 Symptoms

July 28, 2020

Doctors and medical researchers have struggled to pinpoint – let alone explain – the deluge of symptoms induced by COVID-19 infections in patients, and what Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Nvidia Said to Be Close on Arm Deal

August 3, 2020

GPU leader Nvidia Corp. is in talks to buy U.K. chip designer Arm from parent company Softbank, according to several reports over the weekend. If consummated Read more…

By George Leopold

Intel’s 7nm Slip Raises Questions About Ponte Vecchio GPU, Aurora Supercomputer

July 30, 2020

During its second-quarter earnings call, Intel announced a one-year delay of its 7nm process technology, which it says it will create an approximate six-month shift for its CPU product timing relative to prior expectations. The primary issue is a defect mode in the 7nm process that resulted in yield degradation... Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Supercomputer Simulations Reveal the Fate of the Neanderthals

May 25, 2020

For hundreds of thousands of years, neanderthals roamed the planet, eventually (almost 50,000 years ago) giving way to homo sapiens, which quickly became the do Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

10nm, 7nm, 5nm…. Should the Chip Nanometer Metric Be Replaced?

June 1, 2020

The biggest cool factor in server chips is the nanometer. AMD beating Intel to a CPU built on a 7nm process node* – with 5nm and 3nm on the way – has been i Read more…

By Doug Black

HPE Keeps Cray Brand Promise, Reveals HPE Cray Supercomputing Line

August 4, 2020

The HPC community, ever-affectionate toward Cray and its eponymous founder, can breathe a (virtual) sigh of relief. The Cray brand will live on, encompassing th Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Neocortex Will Be First-of-Its-Kind 800,000-Core AI Supercomputer

June 9, 2020

Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC - a joint research organization of Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh) has won a $5 million award Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Leading Solution Providers

Contributors

Nvidia’s Ampere A100 GPU: Up to 2.5X the HPC, 20X the AI

May 14, 2020

Nvidia's first Ampere-based graphics card, the A100 GPU, packs a whopping 54 billion transistors on 826mm2 of silicon, making it the world's largest seven-nanom Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Australian Researchers Break All-Time Internet Speed Record

May 26, 2020

If you’ve been stuck at home for the last few months, you’ve probably become more attuned to the quality (or lack thereof) of your internet connection. Even Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

15 Slides on Programming Aurora and Exascale Systems

May 7, 2020

Sometime in 2021, Aurora, the first planned U.S. exascale system, is scheduled to be fired up at Argonne National Laboratory. Cray (now HPE) and Intel are the k Read more…

By John Russell

‘Billion Molecules Against COVID-19’ Challenge to Launch with Massive Supercomputing Support

April 22, 2020

Around the world, supercomputing centers have spun up and opened their doors for COVID-19 research in what may be the most unified supercomputing effort in hist Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

Joliot-Curie Supercomputer Used to Build First Full, High-Fidelity Aircraft Engine Simulation

July 14, 2020

When industrial designers plan the design of a new element of a vehicle’s propulsion or exterior, they typically use fluid dynamics to optimize airflow and in Read more…

By Oliver Peckham

John Martinis Reportedly Leaves Google Quantum Effort

April 21, 2020

John Martinis, who led Google’s quantum computing effort since establishing its quantum hardware group in 2014, has left Google after being moved into an advi Read more…

By John Russell

$100B Plan Submitted for Massive Remake and Expansion of NSF

May 27, 2020

Legislation to reshape, expand - and rename - the National Science Foundation has been submitted in both the U.S. House and Senate. The proposal, which seems to Read more…

By John Russell

Google Cloud Debuts 16-GPU Ampere A100 Instances

July 7, 2020

On the heels of the Nvidia’s Ampere A100 GPU launch in May, Google Cloud is announcing alpha availability of the A100 “Accelerator Optimized” VM A2 instance family on Google Compute Engine. The instances are powered by the HGX A100 16-GPU platform, which combines two HGX A100 8-GPU baseboards using... Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

  • arrow
  • Click Here for More Headlines
  • arrow
Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!
Share This