Gravitational Waves Detected 100 Years After Einstein’s Prediction

February 12, 2016

Feb. 12 — For the first time, scientists have observed ripples in the fabric of spacetime called gravitational waves, arriving at the earth from a cataclysmic event in the distant universe. This confirms a major prediction of Albert Einstein’s 1915 general theory of relativity and opens an unprecedented new window onto the cosmos.

Gravitational waves carry information about their dramatic origins and about the nature of gravity that cannot otherwise be obtained. Physicists have concluded that the detected gravitational waves were produced during the final fraction of a second of the merger of two black holes to produce a single, more massive spinning black hole. This collision of two black holes had been predicted but never observed.

The gravitational waves were detected on Sept. 14, 2015, at 5:51 a.m. Eastern Daylight Time (9:51 UTC) by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, La., and Hanford, Wash. The LIGO Observatories are funded by the National Science Foundation, and were conceived, built, and are operated by Caltech and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The discovery, accepted for publication in the journal Physical Review Letters, was made by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (which includes the GEO Collaboration and the Australian Consortium for Interferometric Gravitational Astronomy) and the Virgo Collaboration using data from the two LIGO detectors.

NCSA’s Role in the Discovery

Thirty years ago, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) was founded at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign by Larry Smarr based on the premise that numerically modeling scientific problems, such as the colliding of black holes, required high-performance computing to make progress. Smarr’s doctoral thesis had itself been on the modeling of the head-on collision of two black holes. In 2014, Smarr was honored with the Golden Goose award to highlight the impact that his black hole research had on creating NCSA and the NSF supercomputing centers program which led to the public Internet revolution via the creation of the NCSA Mosaic web browser, the first browser to have visual features like icons, bookmarks, and pictures, and was easy to use.

At NCSA, Smarr formed a numerical group, led by Edward Seidel—the current NCSA director. The group quickly became a leader in applying supercomputers to black hole and gravitational wave problems. For example, in 1994 the very first 3-dimension simulation of two colliding black holes providing computed gravitational waveforms was carried out at NCSA by this group in collaboration with colleagues at Washington University.

NCSA as a center has continued to support the most complex problems in numerical relativity and relativistic astrophysics, including working with several groups addressing models of gravitational waves sources seen by LIGO in this discovery. Even more complex simulations will be needed for anticipated future discoveries such as colliding neutron stars and black holes or supernovae explosions.

NCSA has also played a role in developing the tools needed for simulating relativistic systems. The work of Seidel’s NCSA group led to the development of the Cactus Framework, a modular and collaborative framework for parallel computing which since 1997 has supported numerical relativists as well as other disciplines developing applications to run on supercomputers at NCSA and elsewhere. Built on the Cactus Framework, the NSF-supported Einstein Toolkit developed at Georgia Tech, RIT, LSU, AEI, Perimeter Institute and elsewhere now supports many numerical relativity groups modeling sources important for LIGO on the NCSA Blue Waters supercomputer.

“This historic announcement is very special for me. My career has centered on understanding the nature of black hole systems, from my research work in numerical relativity, to building collaborative teams and technologies for scientific research, and then also having the honor to be involved in LIGO during my role as NSF Assistant Director of Mathematics and Physical Sciences. I could not be more excited that the field is advancing to a new phase,” said Seidel, who is also Founder Professor of Physics and professor of astronomy at Illinois.

Gabrielle Allen, professor of astronomy at Illinois and NCSA associate director, previously led the development of the Cactus Framework and the Einstein Toolkit. “NCSA was a critical part of inspiring and supporting the development of Cactus for astrophysics. We held our first Cactus workshop at NCSA and the staff’s involvement in our projects was fundamental to being able to demonstrate not just new science but new computing technologies and approaches,” said Allen.

Eliu Huerta, member of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration since 2011 and current leader of the relativity group at NCSA, is a co-author of the paper to be published in Physical Review Letters. Huerta works at the interface of analytical and numerical relativity, specializing in the development of modeled waveforms for the detection and interpretation of gravitational wave signals. Huerta uses these models to infer the astrophysical properties of compact binary systems, and shed light on the environments in which they form and coalesce.

“The first direct observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole system officially inaugurates the field of gravitational wave astronomy. There can be no better way to celebrate the first centenary of Einstein’s prediction of gravitational waves. We can gladly say that Einstein is right, and that the beautiful mathematical framework he developed to describe gravity is valid even in the most extreme environments. A new era has begun, and we will be glad to discover astrophysical objects we have never dreamt of,” said Huerta.

Stuart Shapiro, a professor of physics and astronomy at Illinois, was appointed an NCSA research scientist by Smarr two decades ago. A leading expert in the theory that underpinned the search for gravitational waves, he has developed software tools that can simulate on NCSA supercomputers like Blue Waters the very binary black hole merger and gravitational waves now detected by LIGO. Shapiro said he is thrilled by the discovery.

“This presents the strongest confirmation yet of Einstein’s theory of general relativity and the cleanest evidence to date of the existence of black holes. The gravitational waves that LIGO measures can only be generated by merging black holes—exotic relativistic objects from which nothing, including light, can escape from their interior,” said Shapiro.

“Work at NCSA helps open windows into the universe,” said Peter Schiffer, vice chancellor for research at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “This is a wonderful fundamental discovery, and it’s exciting that the high performance computing capabilities that we developed to address challenges like this one are also being used to solve other significant societal problems.”

Black holes are formed when massive stars undergo a catastrophic gravitational collapse. The gravitational field of these ultra compact objects is so strong that not even light can escape from them.

Gravitational waves are generated when ultra compact objects—black holes, neutron stars or white dwarfs—are accelerated to velocities that are a significant fraction of the speed of light. Gravitational waves couple weakly to matter, which means that they can travel unimpeded throughout the Universe and that only extremely sensitive detectors such as LIGO can detect them.

LIGO research is carried out by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, a group of more than 1,000 scientists from universities around the United States and in 14 other countries. More than 90 universities and research institutes in the collaboration develop detector technology and analyze data; approximately 250 students are strong contributing members of the collaboration.

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration’s detector network includes the LIGO interferometers and the GEO600 detector. The GEO team includes scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute, AEI), Leibniz Universität Hannover, along with partners at the University of Glasgow, Cardiff University, the University of Birmingham, other universities in the United Kingdom, and the University of the Balearic Islands in Spain.

LIGO was originally proposed as a means of detecting these gravitational waves in the 1980s by Rainer Weiss, professor of physics, emeritus, from MIT; Kip Thorne, Caltech’s Richard P. Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics, emeritus; and Ronald Drever, professor of physics, emeritus, also from Caltech.

Virgo research is carried out by the Virgo Collaboration, consisting of more than 250 physicists and engineers belonging to 19 different European research groups: six from Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in France; eight from the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Italy; two in the Netherlands with Nikhef; the Wigner RCP in Hungary; the POLGRAW group in Poland and the European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), the laboratory hosting the Virgo detector near Pisa in Italy.

The discovery was made possible by the enhanced capabilities of Advanced LIGO, a major upgrade that increases the sensitivity of the instruments compared to the first generation LIGO detectors, enabling a large increase in the volume of the universe probed—and the discovery of gravitational waves during its first observation run.

The U.S. National Science Foundation leads in financial support for Advanced LIGO. Funding organizations in Germany (Max Planck Society), the U.K. (Science and Technology Facilities Council, STFC) and Australia (Australian Research Council) also have made significant commitments to the project. Several of the key technologies that made Advanced LIGO so much more sensitive have been developed and tested by the German UK GEO collaboration.

Significant computer resources have been contributed by the AEI Hannover Atlas Cluster, the LIGO Laboratory, Syracuse University, and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Several universities designed, built, and tested key components for Advanced LIGO: The Australian National University, the University of Adelaide, the University of Florida, Stanford University, Columbia University in the City of New York and Louisiana State University.

Source: NCSA

Subscribe to HPCwire's Weekly Update!

Be the most informed person in the room! Stay ahead of the tech trends with industy updates delivered to you every week!

Nvidia Debuts Turing Architecture, Focusing on Real-Time Ray Tracing

August 16, 2018

From the SIGGRAPH professional graphics conference in Vancouver this week, Nvidia CEO Jensen Huang unveiled Turing, the company's next-gen GPU platform that introduces new RT Cores to accelerate ray tracing and new Tenso Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

HPC Coding: The Power of L(o)osing Control

August 16, 2018

Exascale roadmaps, exascale projects and exascale lobbyists ask, on-again-off-again, for a fundamental rewrite of major code building blocks. Otherwise, so they claim, codes will not scale up. Naturally, some exascale pr Read more…

By Tobias Weinzierl

STAQ(ing) the Quantum Computing Deck

August 16, 2018

Quantum computers – at least for now – remain noisy. That’s another way of saying unreliable and in diverse ways that often depend on the specific quantum technology used. One idea is to mitigate noisiness and perh Read more…

By John Russell

HPE Extreme Performance Solutions

Introducing the First Integrated System Management Software for HPC Clusters from HPE

How do you manage your complex, growing cluster environments? Answer that big challenge with the new HPC cluster management solution: HPE Performance Cluster Manager. Read more…

IBM Accelerated Insights

Super Problem Solving

You might think that tackling the world’s toughest problems is a job only for superheroes, but at special places such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, supercomputers are the real heroes. Read more…

NREL ‘Eagle’ Supercomputer to Advance Energy Tech R&D

August 14, 2018

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has contracted with Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) for a new 8-petaflops (peak) supercomputer that will be used to advance early-stage R&a Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

STAQ(ing) the Quantum Computing Deck

August 16, 2018

Quantum computers – at least for now – remain noisy. That’s another way of saying unreliable and in diverse ways that often depend on the specific quantum Read more…

By John Russell

NREL ‘Eagle’ Supercomputer to Advance Energy Tech R&D

August 14, 2018

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has contracted with Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) for a new 8-petaflops (peak Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

CERN Project Sees Orders-of-Magnitude Speedup with AI Approach

August 14, 2018

An award-winning effort at CERN has demonstrated potential to significantly change how the physics based modeling and simulation communities view machine learni Read more…

By Rob Farber

Intel Announces Cooper Lake, Advances AI Strategy

August 9, 2018

Intel's chief datacenter exec Navin Shenoy kicked off the company's Data-Centric Innovation Summit Wednesday, the day-long program devoted to Intel's datacenter Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

SLATE Update: Making Math Libraries Exascale-ready

August 9, 2018

Practically-speaking, achieving exascale computing requires enabling HPC software to effectively use accelerators – mostly GPUs at present – and that remain Read more…

By John Russell

Summertime in Washington: Some Unexpected Advanced Computing News

August 8, 2018

Summertime in Washington DC is known for its heat and humidity. That is why most people get away to either the mountains or the seashore and things slow down. H Read more…

By Alex R. Larzelere

NSF Invests $15 Million in Quantum STAQ

August 7, 2018

Quantum computing development is in full ascent as global backers aim to transcend the limitations of classical computing by leveraging the magical-seeming prop Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

By the Numbers: Cray Would Like Exascale to Be the Icing on the Cake

August 1, 2018

On its earnings call held for investors yesterday, Cray gave an accounting for its latest quarterly financials, offered future guidance and provided an update o Read more…

By Tiffany Trader

Leading Solution Providers

SC17 Booth Video Tours Playlist

Altair @ SC17

Altair

AMD @ SC17

AMD

ASRock Rack @ SC17

ASRock Rack

CEJN @ SC17

CEJN

DDN Storage @ SC17

DDN Storage

Huawei @ SC17

Huawei

IBM @ SC17

IBM

IBM Power Systems @ SC17

IBM Power Systems

Intel @ SC17

Intel

Lenovo @ SC17

Lenovo

Mellanox Technologies @ SC17

Mellanox Technologies

Microsoft @ SC17

Microsoft

Penguin Computing @ SC17

Penguin Computing

Pure Storage @ SC17

Pure Storage

Supericro @ SC17

Supericro

Tyan @ SC17

Tyan

Univa @ SC17

Univa

  • arrow
  • Click Here for More Headlines
  • arrow
Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site!
Share This